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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ap
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
apterous
Annotation Symbol
CG8376
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0267978
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
apterous (ap) encodes a transcription factor that functions in a tetramer consisting of a dimer of the product of Chi and two monomers ODF the product of ap. It contributes to the dorsal identity of wing cells, muscle development, juvenile hormone production and neuronal path finding. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:5,706,202..5,727,525 [-]
Recombination map

2-55

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:5706202..5727525
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (21 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000654232
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000654232
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (18 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (14 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000654232
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000654232
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000654232
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
LIM HOMEOBOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
LIM homeobox transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They have two N-terminal LIM domains (cysteine-rich, double-zinc finger motifs) and a centrally located sequence-specific DNA binding homeodomain. (Adapted from PMID:24676471 and FBrf0125444).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Required for the normal development of the wing and halter imaginal disks.
(UniProt, P29673)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
*ap: apterous (T.G. Wilson)
Wings and halteres reduced to traces. Bristles eliminated from area around wing base (including posterior notopleurals, anterior and posterior supra-alars, and anterior postalars); posterior scutellars erect when present but missing in first counts; dorsocentrals smaller and fewer; hairs on thorax sparse and irregular. Sutural furrow reduced; thorax disproportionately small. Flies small, pale, weak, and very short lived. Viability about 70% that of wild type but erratic. Both sexes sterile. RK2.
ap4
Wings less than 10% normal length, lacking all wing blade structures. Halteres reduced to structureless remnants less than 25% normal size. Scutellar and dorsocentral bristles sometimes missing (Butterworth and King, 1965, Genetics 52: 1153-74). Wing phenotype disc autonomous in ap4/ap+ mosaic flies, although small patches of ap4 wing structures are found in ap4/ap+ mosaic wings. Haltere phenotype disc autonomous (Wilson, 1981, Dev. Biol. 85: 434-45). Adults become paralyzed about 30 hr following eclosion and die soon thereafter. Around 1% of adults are long-lived "escapers" of this phenotype (Wilson, 1980, Dev. Genet. 1: 195-204). Precocious adult-death phenotype fate-maps to proximity of Malpighian tubules, and tubule malfunctioning postulated to result in this phenotype (Wilson, 1981). Foregut of females swollen owing to accumulation of peritrophic membrane (King and Sang, 1958, DIS 32: 133). Female sterile with underdeveloped ovaries; nurse cell nuclei become pycnotic after stage 7, and stage-8 oocytes are the most advanced (King and Burnett, 1957, Growth 21: 263-80; Wilson, 1980). ap4 ovaries develop nonautonomously when transplanted to a wild-type host (King and Bodenstein, 1965, Z. Naturforsch. 20B: 292-97). Application of juvenile hormone mimic, ZR-515, to newly eclosed ap4 females results in vitellogenic oocytes [Postlethwait and Weiser, 1973, Nature (London) New Biol. 244: 284-85]. Membranes of vitellogenic oocytes lack microvilli and pinocytoxic vesicles normally present; development of these structures stimulated by administration of ZR-515 (Tedesco, Courtwright, and Kumaran, 1981, J. Insect. Physiol. 27: 895-902). Corpora allata from adult ap4 are juvenile hormone deficient when bioassayed [Postlethwait, Handler, and Gray, 1975, The Juvenile Hormones (L.I. Gilbert, ed.). pp. 449-69]. Nonvitellogenic oocyte phenotype fate-maps to same or similar location as precocious adult death phenotype (Wilson, 1981). Escaper females develop stage-14 oocytes (King and Sang, 1958) and are fertile (Wilson, 1980). Males show immature sexual behavior and are sterile, but testes appear normal with motile sperm (King and Sang, 1958). Larval fat body histolysis delayed; this phenotype is nonautonomous as determined by transplantation experiments (Butterworth, 1972, Dev. Biol. 28: 311-25). Application of ZR-515 accelerates larval fat body histolysis in ap4 adults (Postlethwait and Jones, 1978, J. Expt. Zool. 203: 207-14). Ovarian acid phosphatase level low in ap4 females and is restored after application of ZR-515 (Postlethwait et al., 1975). ap4 ovaries cultured in vitro are capable of yolk protein synthesis (Redfern and Bownes, 1982, Mol. Gen. Genet. 195: 181-83). ap4/Df(2L)M41A-54 hemizygote has nearly normal complement of bristles but otherwise resembles ap4 homozygote (Butterworth and King, 1965).
ap56f
Wing and haltere phenotype like ap4. Scutellar and dorsocentral bristles missing (Butterworth and King, 1965, Genetics 52: 1153-74). Rear and middle legs occasionally twisted, more frequently in female than in male. Both sexes fertile and long lived when homozygous and in combination with other ap alleles. ap56f/M(2)S24 have normal complement of dorsocentral and scutellar bristles (Butterworth and King, 1965).
ap77f
Weakest non-temperature-sensitive allele known. Wing has reasonably good wing blade development, with missing triple-row elements and posterior wing margin. Haltere less well developed but more so than ap4. Adults long lived and fertile. Less dominant in heteroallelic combination with ap4-like alleles than is ap56f. ap77f/Df(2R)M41A4 has more severe phenotype than ap77f homozygotes.
ap78j
A temperature-sensitive allele of apterous. When raised at 22, wing and haltere phenotype approaches wild type except for missing patches of triple-row bristles and posterior wing margin. When raised at higher temperatures, phenotype becomes more severe and resembles ap4 at 29. Two non-overlapping temperature-sensitive periods in development, one in late-second to middle-third instar for wing and haltere deficiency phenotype and the other during the first day of pupal development for precocious adult death and nonvitellogenesis phenotype. Wing discs of heat-pulsed larvae failed to exhibit cell death by trypan blue exclusion.
apblt: apterous-blot
Wings blistered, sometimes inflated and dark due to trapped hemolymph. Mirror-image duplication of posterior wing blade structures occurs [Waddington, 1939, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 25: 299-307; Whittle, 1979, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 53: 292-303 (fig.)]. Wing venation may be disrupted. Portions of posterior wing compartment may be transformed into anterior compartment structures, an effect like that of engrailed (en; 2-62.0). Despite relatively mild adult phenotype, extensive cell death observed, localized to wing pouch of imaginal discs; associated with acid phosphatase and lysosomal activity (Sedlak, Manzo, and Stevens, 1984, Dev. Biol. 104: 489-96). Clonal analysis revealed nonautonomous expression of phenotype. Heterozygotes with ap4 or ap56f and hemizygotes show blistering phenotype only (Whittle). apblt/ap73n shows transformation phenotype, and aldehyde oxidase histochemical staining of these wing discs is consistent with transformation (Whittle and Sprey, 1982, Wilhelm Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 191: 285-88). Much overlapping with wild type, and expressivity variable. Adults long lived and fertile.
ape
Homozygotes display extreme wing reduction, particularly of the posterior wing compartment. Approximately 50% of the flies have duplications of the anterior wing margin, distal costa, and triple row bristles. In wings with large amounts of wing blade, very little venation is present; however, these may often have triplications or even four copies of the anterior wing margin, some located in the posterior part of the wing. Dried hemolymph sometimes trapped between the dorsal and ventral wing surfaces giving the wing a puffy blackened appearance. This mutant therefore has duplications and deficiencies characteristic of cell death followed by regulation in the wing, but also has transformations of the posterior wing compartment to the anterior wing compartment. 8% of the flies have defective third legs, more frequently in females than in males. Halteres and scutellar bristles appear to be normal. Homozygotes viable and fertile.
aptrw: apterous-torn wing
Distal part of wing in homozygotes shows sawtooth pattern as if tip torn away. Expression uniform in males and females. Viability and fertility good.
apXa: apterous-Xasta
thumb
apXa: apterous-Xasta
From Bridges and Brehme, 1944, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. No. 552: 228.
Wings reduced in length to about 70% normal; irregular in outline with a V-shaped incision with apex at L2, uniformly present giving wing a mitten-like shape with the thumb between marginal vein and L2. Excellent dominant with no overlap. Fertile and fully viable in heterozygote. Usually lethal in homozygous conditions, but occasionally ecloses very late as pale dwarf with wings and balancers like vg. Deep notch visible in tip of wing fold in prepupa (Waddington, 1939, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 25: 299-307). In homozygotes and in combination with ap4, ap6, or Df(2R)M41A4, wings are straplike and 30-70% normal length, and haltere length is 25-50% normal; longevity and fertility like ap4/ap4 except for an occasional long-lived apXa/Df(2R)M41A4 female that may be fertile [Butterworth and King, 1965, Genetics 52: 1153-74 (fig.)]. In heterozygous combination with apID, duplications of the notum occur frequently. Wing disc cell death found in both apXa/+ (Fristrom, 1969, Mol. Gen. Genet. 103: 363-79) and apXa/apID [Postlethwait, 1978, Genetics and Biology of Drosophila (Ashburner and Wright, eds.). Academic Press, London, New York, San Franciso, Vol. 2C, pp. 418-19 (fig.)].
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\ap for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0086058
4114
469
FBtr0086059
2667
246
FBtr0300504
3089
468
FBtr0335274
2149
246
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

4.1 (northern blot)

4.3, 3.2 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0085394
52.1
469
8.66
FBpp0085395
27.4
246
10.31
FBpp0289731
51.9
468
8.66
FBpp0307253
27.4
246
10.31
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

246 aa isoforms: ap-PB, ap-PE
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ap using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mesoderm | restricted

Comment: reference states 6-11 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data

ap transcripts are expressed in a subset of cells within the embryonic brain and ventral nerve cord, in a subset of embryonic muscles, and in wing discs. Within the ventral nerve cord, expression is restricted to 3 cells per hemisegment (one dorsal and two ventral) and an additional cluster of 4 lateral cells in each thoracic hemisegment.

ap transcripts are first detected on northern blots in 3-6hr embryos, peak in 9-12hr embryos and are expressed at lower levels in late embryonic and larval stages. ap transcripts are first detected by in situ hybridization in a segmentally repeated group of 16-18 cells. By 8hr, ap is expressed in several discrete clusters as a result of cell migration. The cells appear to be predominantly mesodermal and are occur in positions where ventral and mediolateral muscle precursors arise. Some of the cells are more closely associated with the ectoderm. In the CNS, ap is expressed in 5 postmitotic neurons per hemisegment in A1-A7 and an extra 4 neurons in the thoracic segments. 7 of the 9 ap-expressing neurons are found in positions where motoneurons that exit the CNS through the segmental nerve are found. ap is also expressed in the brain.

ap transcripts are expressed in a complex and dynamic pattern during embryogenesis. During germband extension, expression is observed in the mandibular lobe and in the anus. Later, ap expression is observed in PNS cells that are thought to be accessory cells associated with a subset of both chordotonal and external sensory organs. ap expression is also observed in other thoracic cells that may be larval muscle precursors. Finally, a restricted set of cells (1-4 per hemisegment) in the CNS express ap. ap expression is later observed in larval and pupal imaginal discs. Transcripts are expressed throughout the parts of the of the wing and haltere discs that give rise to the dorsal surface of the wing and haltere blades, at lower levels in the regions that form the notum and scutellum, and at the highest level in the wing hinge region. It is also expressed in the presumptive fourth tarsal segment of the ventral thoracic discs, in a central spot in the antennal portion of the eye antennal disc, and in the larval brain.

ap transcripts are expressed in a complex and dynamic pattern during embryogenesis. During germband extension, expression is observed in the mandibular lobe and in the anus. Later, ap expression is observed in PNS cells that are thought to be accessory cells associated with a subset of both chordotonal and external sensory organs. ap expression is also observed in other thoracic cells that may be larval muscle precursors. Finally, a restricted set of cells (1-4 per hemisegment) in the CNS express ap. ap expression is later observed in larval and pupal imaginal discs. Transcripts are expressed throughout the parts of the of the wing and haltere discs that give rise to the dorsal surface of the wing and haltere blades, at lower levels in the regions that form the notum and scutellum, and at the highest level in the wing hinge region. It is also expressed in the presumptive fourth tarsal segment of the ventral thoracic discs, in a central spot in the antennal portion of the eye antennal disc, and in the larval brain. ! GAT13b. Alleles or genotypes used :

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Within the ventral nerve cord, expression is restricted to 3 cells per hemisegment (one dorsal and two ventral) and an additional cluster of 4 lateral cells in each thoracic hemisegment. Analysis of expression of a ap promoter fragment fused to tau-lacZ (see btauap.C.T:lacZ) suggests that the ap-expressing cells are interneurons.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{apC-tau-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ap-GAL4.U}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ap-GFP.ME680}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4}md52
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}apmd544
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacZ}apUG62
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ME15-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
direct flight muscle

Comment: expressions starts 36 hr APF

Reporter: P{PZ}ap41F
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}aprK568
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ap in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 140 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 34 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ap
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ap
Deletions and Duplications ( 49 )
Duplicated in
Partially disrupted in
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
macrochaeta & thorax | dorsal
microchaeta & thorax
wing (with apP)
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
1  
9 of 15
No
Yes
1  
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1  
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
8 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (3)
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091907OQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091509PU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0559 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0DY7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G13BH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (6)
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Dmel gene
    Ortholog showing functional complementation
    Supporting References
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map

    2-55

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:5,706,202..5,727,525 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    41F-41F8
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}vlc07022&P{lacW}l(2)09851k08138 and P{PZ}l(2)0985109851&P{lacW}Src42Ak10108
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    41F-41F
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    41F8-42A1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (82)
    Genomic Clones (29)
    cDNA Clones (88)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     

    polyclonal

    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: ap CG8376

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: ap neuro

    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    Identification: as a complementation group whose members dominantly modify the small wing phenotype caused by expression of Pi3K92ED954A.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC under the control of Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096. 4 alleles of ap have been recovered.

    fng is required via N activation od an ap dependent affinity difference at the dorsal ventral restriction boundary in the wing disc.

    An enhancer element, apME680, is responsible for expression in muscle progenitors.

    ap is directly regulated by Antp during muscle development.

    Shows particularly robust cycling of transcription in adult heads, as assessed by expression analysis using high density oligonucleotide arrays with probe generated during three 12-point time course experiments over the course of 6 days.

    ap mediates development of direct flight muscles autonomously and development of indirect flight muscles through epidermal cues.

    ap regulates the expression of sr.

    ap and Lim1 are required for proximal-distal leg development.

    The ap :Chi complex may act as a tetramer.

    Chi is an essential cofactor for ap in the regulation of axon guidance.

    ap activity depends on the formation of a LIM homeodomain dimer bridged by a dimer of Chi cofactor.

    ap is not required for Tv neuron survival or morphological differentiation in the central nervous system, but helps define neurotransmitter expression in these neurons.

    The normal function of ap in dorso-ventral compartmentalization in the wing requires the correct proportion of Chi and ap gene product.

    Lack and excess of Chi gene product cause the same phenotype as lack of ap function: dorsal to ventral transformations, generation of new wing margins, wing outgrowths.

    In ap mutants the wing is lost, this phenotype can be rescued by ectopic expression of either Ser or fng and the resulting wings have both dorsal and ventral cell fates.

    ap mediates cell interactions across the DV axis of the wing by regulating the expression of Ser and fng.

    By analogy to their vertebrate counterparts, the gene products of Bx, ap and Chi form a DNA-binding complex, that regulates wing development.

    The expression patterns of crustacean homologues of nub and ap support the hypothesis that insect wings evolved from gill-like appendages that were present in the aquatic ancestors of both crustaceans and insects.

    Genetic combinations with mutants of nub cause additive phenotypes.

    Expression pattern analysis suggests a conservation of the tissue-specific gene networks operating in the muscles and neural tubes of flies and mice.

    The ap ventral nerve cord enhancer drives Ecol\lacZ expression in the neural tube of transgenic mice in a pattern reminiscent of the mouse orthologue Lhx2. A muscle specific ap enhancer also retains its tissue specificity in transgenic mice.

    Tissue specific and homeotic regulation of ap are regulated through the same cis-acting sequences. Expression of the homologue during mouse embryogenesis suggests that aspects of its regulation and function have been conserved from Drosophila to mammals.

    ap regulates compartmentalization of the wing disc, dorsal cell behaviour and the expression of two dorsally expressed putative signalling molecules, fng and Ser.

    All ap-expressing neurons are interneurons that chose a single pathway within the developing central nervous system.

    In ap mutants the ap interneurons choose incorrect pathways and fail to fasciculate with one another.

    ap function is not required during embryogenesis. ap plays crucial roles at various post-embryonic stages of development.

    ap lethality is polyphasic, but occurs primarily at the larval and pupal stages. The lethal phenotype is not associated with any overt morphological abnormality, suggesting that death occurs from a systemic malfunction.

    vg is required for the proper pattern of expression of ap, sd and Ser.

    ap maintains a late-arising dorsoventral lineage restriction in the wing a manner that strongly supports the selector gene hypothesis. ap plays a selector-like role both in terms of the control of lineage restrictions and the regulation of downstream gene expression.

    The dorsal-ventral lineage boundary in the group of ct-expressing cells between the dorsal and ventral row of wing margin bristle precursors is marked by the boundary of dorsal-specific ap expression.

    Clonal analysis suggests that short range interactions between ap expressing (dorsal identity) and non-expressing (ventral identity) cells induces the formation of the wing margin.

    Spatially localized expression of apterous specifies the identity of dorsal cells in the wing.

    Whereas in wild type ovarian follicles the Golgi apparatus and yolk spheres are preferentially labelled by osmium zinc iodide, in mutant follicles the Golgi apparatus and nearby vesicles showed dramatically reduced staining.

    Though ap is expressed in the dorsal cells of the developing wing, it is required for formation of the entire wing.

    The wg product is required to restrict the expression of the ap gene to dorsal cells in the developing wing and to promote the expression of the vg and sd genes that demarcate the wing primordia.

    Loss of ap function results in loss of ap-expressing muscles, whereas misexpression of ap using a heat-shock promoter produces ectopic muscles.

    Aspects of the ap phenotype may depend on ap expression in the adult brain.

    ap mutants interact additively with alleles of ct.

    Most of the characterized ap alleles belong to the group showing the ap1 or ap4 phenotype. Some alleles (apblt2 and apT60) have a less severe wing phenotype, being straplike. Alleles also vary in their expressivity of the precocious adult death and nonvitellogenic ovary phenotypic characters; some alleles result in a low number of escapers, similar to ap4, while others have an escaper percentage of as much as 50%. There is little correlation between expressivity of the wing deficiency phenotype and either precocious adult death or nonvitellogenic ovary development. Generally, heterozygous combinations of these alleles do not show complementation for any phenotypic characters. Another group includes two dominant alleles. The ap locus appears to be a complex locus, containing several partially complementing groups for the wing deficiency and adult-death/female-sterility phenotypic characteristics.

    The ap locus is essential for the development of normal levels of male courtship and male mating success and for the loss of immature male sex appeal.

    Abnormally low levels of juvenile hormone are synthesized in ap mutants.

    The neuro gene product is likely to act as a transcription factor controlling the expression of genes involved in terminal differentiation of the subset of neurons and muscles that express it.

    ap is essential for the normal acquisition of female receptivity to males.

    Mutations at the ap locus alone cannot reduce female receptivity to males to zero. Juvenile hormone deficiency is the cause of low receptivity in mutants.

    The ap locus is involved in male courtship.

    All phenotypes of ap alleles are explicable in terms of changes in quantity rather than quality of gene product.

    A group of ap alleles, represented by apblt, exhibits a less severe, somewhat different wing phenotype than ap1 or ap4, attributable to localized lysosomal cell death in the presumptive wing blade.

    A good correlation exists between expressivity of the precocious adult death or nonvitellogenic ovary development phenotypes.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 47 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    Linkouts
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (19)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    ap
    (Bosch et al., 2020, Estacio-Gómez et al., 2020, Ahmad and Spens, 2019, Mayumi et al., 2019, Stratmann et al., 2019, Bischof et al., 2018, Valsecchi et al., 2018, Fisher et al., 2017, Kojima, 2017, Muzzopappa et al., 2017, Stratmann and Thor, 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Bürglin and Affolter, 2016, Han et al., 2016, Michel et al., 2016, Rickels et al., 2016, Stratmann et al., 2016, Xiong et al., 2016, Bieli et al., 2015, Bieli et al., 2015, Bivik et al., 2015, de Taffin et al., 2015, Kumar et al., 2015, Milán, 2015, model organism Encyclopedia of Regulatory Network (modERN) Project, 2015-, Schertel et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Eroglu et al., 2014, Ghavi-Helm et al., 2014, Guarner et al., 2014, Herrera and Morata, 2014, Neville et al., 2014, Alfieri et al., 2013, Hasegawa et al., 2013, O'Donnell and Bashaw, 2013, Paul et al., 2013, Busser et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Nfonsam et al., 2012, Troost and Klein, 2012, Carhan et al., 2011, Caussinus et al., 2011, Chatterjee et al., 2011, Dobi et al., 2011, Goto et al., 2011, McNeil et al., 2011, Morante et al., 2011, Seong et al., 2011, Takemura and Adachi-Yamada, 2011, Bosch et al., 2010, Karlsson et al., 2010, Losada-Pérez et al., 2010, Müller et al., 2010, Portela et al., 2010, Roignant et al., 2010, Yagi et al., 2010, Zecca and Struhl, 2010, Baumgardt et al., 2009, Dworkin et al., 2009, Greenberg and Hatini, 2009, Grimm et al., 2009, Guha et al., 2009, Liu et al., 2009, Tomoyasu et al., 2009, Umemori et al., 2009, Baumgardt et al., 2008, Becam and Milán, 2008, Biryukova and Heitzler, 2008, Bosch et al., 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.9.29, Christensen et al., 2008.12.28, Gohl et al., 2008, Karlsson et al., 2008, Morante and Desplan, 2008, Oktaba et al., 2008, Pueyo and Couso, 2008, Yasugi et al., 2008, Baumgardt et al., 2007, Beltran et al., 2007, de Navascués and Modolell, 2007, Draper et al., 2007, Gohl et al., 2007, Herrero et al., 2007, Jones, 2007, Karlsson et al., 2007, Kiger et al., 2007, Umemori et al., 2007, Zecca and Struhl, 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Choksi et al., 2006, Koelzer and Klein, 2006, Kozu et al., 2006, Layden et al., 2006, Rauschenbach et al., 2006, Vasenkova et al., 2006, Akimoto et al., 2005, Allan et al., 2005, Flatt et al., 2005, Galindo et al., 2005, Milan et al., 2005, Johnston et al., 2004, Delanoue et al., 2002, Klebes et al., 2002, Gim et al., 2001, O'Keefe and Thomas, 2001, Cho et al., 2000, Grimm and Pflugfelder, 1996)
    neuro
    trw
    Name Synonyms
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0000099
    • FBgn0005618
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    Experimental Role
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    References (576)