General Information
Symbol
Dmel\PPO1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Prophenoloxidase 1
Annotation Symbol
CG42639
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0283437
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Catechol oxidase (1.10.3.1)
Tyrosinase (1.14.18.1)
Gene Snapshot
Prophenoloxidase 1 is produced by crystal cells (a type of hemocyte cell) and is involved in the melanization reaction, notably upon wounding. PPO1 is thought to be activated by proteolytic cleavage by the serine protease Hayan. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
Bc, Mox, proPO-A1, DoxA1, Dox-A1
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:17,887,220..17,889,973 [-]
Recombination map
2-84
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
2 catechol + O(2) = 2 1,2-benzoquinone + 2 H(2)O (1.10.3.1)
(1) L-tyrosine + O(2) = dopaquinone + H(2)O (1.14.18.1)
(2) 2 L-dopa + O(2) = 2 dopaquinone + 2 H(2)O (1.14.18.1)
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
PHENOLOXIDASES -
Phenoloxidases (POs) are innate immune proteins involved in the melanization process. POs catalyze the oxidation of phenols to quinones, which subsequently polymerize into melanin at the site of infection and around parasites. POs are synthesized as an inactive zymogen prophenoloxidase (PPO), which are cleaved to generate active POs. (Adapted from FBrf0224867 and FBrf0229770).
DIPHENOL OXIDOREDUCTASES, OXYGEN AS ACCEPTOR -
Diphenol oxidoreductases with oxygen as acceptor include dehydrogenases that oxidize diphenols and related substances with the reduction of oxygen molecule.
OTHER PAIRED DONOR OXIDOREDUCTASES, INCORPORATION OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN -
The Other oxidoreductases acting on paired donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen is a collection of oxidoreductases that do not fit into any of the other major oxidoreductases acting on paired donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen.
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Dox-A1: Diphenol oxidase A1 subunit
Enzyme detectable in embryos at ten hours and remains throughout development and adult life. A1 band more intense than those of subunits A2 and A3.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\PPO1 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\PPO1 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0302291
2338
690
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0291497
79.1
690
6.57
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\PPO1 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (13 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:PPO2; FB:FBgn0033367
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
PPO1 protein is localized to maturing crystal cells in the lymph gland cortical zone.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{PPO1-CFP.F6}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PPO1-lacZ.F}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\PPO1 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 5 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of PPO1
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 9 )
Deletions and Duplications ( 4 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-84
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:17,887,220..17,889,973 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    54F6-54F6
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (83)
    Genomic Clones (24)
    cDNA Clones (154)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for identity of: proPO-A1 CG42639
      Source for identity of: PPO1 proPO-A1
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: PPO1 Bc
      Additional comments
      The Bc (Black cells) mutation (FBal0001073) is a gain-of-function mutation in the PPO1 (CG42639) gene. The A480V lesion in PPO1 which is found in the Bc mutant allele is necessary and sufficient to phenocopy both the dominant Bc phenotype of spontaneously melanised crystal cells and the recessive Bc phenotype of defective melanisation after wounding. This indicates that the A480V lesion is the causal mutation of the Black cells phenotype and that Bc is allelic to PPO1.
      "Phox" may correspond to "proPO-A1", since they map to the same location and both show monophenol oxidase activity.
      It is unlikely that Phox corresponds to proPO-A1 (the A1 component of phenol oxidase described in FBrf0017315).
      Other Comments
      PPO1 and PPO2 are the main source of phenoloxidase (PO) activity in the hemolymph (double mutants show no hemolymphatic PO activity upon wounding or after microbial infection). The two genes are not fully redundant: PPO1 is involved in the rapid early delivery of phenoloxidase activity when it is required, while PPO2 protein is accumulated in the crystals of crystal cells and provides a storage form that can be deployed in a second phase. PPO1 and PPO2 have a role in the survival of infection with Gram-positive bacteria and fungi.
      Males have a minimum level of phenol oxidase activity that protects them from mechanical damage of cuticle or toxic effects. Females have high levels of phenol oxidase, may be caused by their reproductive function.
      Mutants in Bc cause the loss of prophenoloxidase activity. Encapsulation of eggs from the parasitoid strain L.boulardi demonstrate that phenoloxidases are required only for blackening and hardening of haemolytic capsules.
      The primary defect in Bc mutants may involve the loss of the physical barrier between phenol oxidase and its substrate in the crystal cells, which results in the melanisation of the cells in the mutant.
      Phenol oxidase activity is reduced in heterozygous larval cell-free extracts and undetectable in homozygous larval cell-free extracts.
      The Bc[+] product may be required for binding the substrate of phenol oxidase in the paracrystalline structures of the crystal cells so that it is inaccessible to the phenol oxidase enzyme.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 177 )
      Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Linkouts
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (47)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      DmePPOA1
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0261362
      • FBgn0003081
      • FBgn0004627
      • FBgn0000165
      • FBgn0261382
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (173)