General Information
Symbol
Dmel\vas
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
vasa
Annotation Symbol
CG46283
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0283442
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Adenosinetriphosphatase (3.6.1.3)
Gene Snapshot
Vasa (Vas) is a DEAD-box RNA helicase protein. It interacts with eIF5B and promotes translation of grk and mei-P26 mRNAs. Vas also functions in piRNA biogenesis as a component of an Amplifier complex. Maternally-expressed Vas is required for oogenesis, transposon silencing in the female germ line, anterior-posterior embryonic patterning, and germ cell specification. [Date last reviewed: 2016-08-25]
Also Known As
Vasa, cgt, BG:DS00929 .14
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:15,061,656..15,074,311 [+]
Recombination map
2-50
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the DEAD box helicase family. DDX4/VASA subfamily. (P09052)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
ATP + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate (3.6.1.3)
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Involved in translational control mechanisms operating in early stages of oogenesis. Required maternally in many stages of oogenesis, including cystocyte differentiation, oocyte differentiation, and specification of anterior-posterior polarity in the developing cysts. Essential for the formation and/or structural integrity of perinuclear nuage particles during germ cell formation. Required for gus, Fsn and aub accumulation at the posterior pole of the embryo. Required for the localization of vas to the perinuclear region of nurse cells.
(UniProt, P09052)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
vas: vasa (T. Schupbach)
exhibit a so-called "grandchildless-knirps" phenotype: all eggs lack polar granules and no pole cells are formed; most of the embyros show large deletions of abdominal segments, whereby anterior parts of segment A1 become fused to posterior parts of segment A8. Telson elements are always present and relatively normal. Eggs have abnormal shape. Analysis of germline clones indicates that the mutation is germline autonomous (Schupbach and Wieschaus, 1986, Dev. Biol. 113: 443-448). Homozygous vasa males cannot be distinguished from wild-type males in viability and fertility.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\vas or the JBrowse view of Dmel\vas for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 6.05
Genes with CDS overlap: vas and solo share promoter, first exon and N-terminal coding sequences (137 residues).
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0445185
2241
661
FBtr0445186
2285
661
FBtr0445187
2195
661
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.2 (compiled cDNA)
4, 3 (northern blot); 2.0 (unknown)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0401445
72.3
661
5.34
FBpp0401446
72.3
661
5.34
FBpp0401447
72.3
661
5.34
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

661 aa isoforms: vas-PA, vas-PB, vas-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
648 (aa); 72 (kD)
660 (aa); 72 (kD)
Comments
vas protein may be an ATP-dependent nucleic acid helicase.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with eIF5B and faf. Interacts with gus (via B30.2/SPRY domain) and Fsn (via B30.2/SPRY domain). Interacts with aub, me31B, eIF-4a and TER94. Interacts with piwi; this interaction is RNA independent. Interacts with Dcr-1 and Fmr1; these interactions occur in the polar granules.
(UniProt, P09052)
Post Translational Modification
Ubiquitinated during oogenesis. Deubiquitinated by faf, which protects this protein from proteasome-mediated degradation.
(UniProt, P09052)
Domain
The B30.2/SPRY domain-binding motif mediates recognition by proteins containing a B30.2/SPRY domain.
(UniProt, P09052)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\vas using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (26 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:gus; FB:FBgn0026238
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P55824
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:piwi; FB:FBgn0004872
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Fmr1; FB:FBgn0028734
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Dcr-1; FB:FBgn0039016
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9NJH7
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:A1Z6E0
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Biological Process (14 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

organism

Comment: rapidly degraded

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
vas expression is observed in male germ cells.
vas expression is observed in female germ cells.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: Probed with antibody to Bombyx vas.

pole cell

Comment: Probed with antibody to Bombyx vas.

Additional Descriptive Data
germline cell
The vas protein is expressed in germ cells at the larva/pupa transition, 108 hrs AEL.
vasa protein is cytoplasmic within pole cells. In some cell types in ovaries and testes, vasa protein distribution is perinuclear.
vas protein is concentrated in the form of polar granules at the posterior pole in early embryos. A low level of staining is also seen throughout the embryo during cleavage stages. vas protein is also present in egg chambers. Protein expression in mutants of vas, stau, osk, tud, vls, and BicD were studied.
vasa protein is detected in larval and pupal ovaries in the oogonial cells and their precursors. It is abundant in the germaria of adult ovaries and is also abundant in the pronurse cell nuclei in early stages of oogenesis. vasa protein is transported to the oocyte starting in stage 8 and is concentrated at the posterior pole, although it is detectable at lower levels throughout the oocyte. vasa protein is also detected in males in the larval spermatogonial cells and in cyst cells of the adult testis. In early cleavage stage embryos, a shallow posterior-anterior gradient of vas protein is seen with the highest concentration at the posterior pole. Later the pole cells stain heavily and the pole cell and subsequent gonadal expression persists throughout embryogenesis. In ovaries lacking tud, vls, nos, and pum, vas protein localizes to the posterior pole of the oocyte normally but in ovaries lacking osk and stau, vas protein fails to distribute asymmetrically. BicC mutations affect vas protein distribution while BicD mutations do not. capu and spir abolish localization of vas protein to pole cells. vas protein is detected in ovaries of egl, mus301, qua, Bic-F, mr, Fs(2)Y12, and vss mutant females.
vas protein is located at the posterior pole of early embryos. This posterior localization is abolished in mutants of stau, vas, spir, capu, and osk. Posterior localization of vas protein is less striking in tud and vls mutants than in wild type embryos and indistinguishable from wild type in nos and pum mutants.
vas protein in both late-stage oocytes and in early embryos is localized to the posterior pole, and thus differs from the uniform distribution of vas transcript at the same stage. In addition to late-stage oocytes, the vas protein is found in germline stem cells and nurse cells of ovaries. In adult males, the vas protein is present in male germline stem cells during early spermatogenesis.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\vas in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 39 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of vas
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    Yes
      0
      Yes
        0
        Yes
          0
          --
          Other relevant insertions
          insertion of mobile activating element
          Name
          Expression Data
          Transgenic Constructs ( 70 )
          For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
          Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of vas
          Allele of vas
          Mutagen
          Associated Transgenic Construct
          Stocks
          Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of vas
          GAL4 construct
          Name
          Expression Data
          vital-reporter construct
          UAS construct
          reporter construct
          Name
          Expression Data
          Deletions and Duplications ( 81 )
          Disrupted in
          Not disrupted in
          Summary of Phenotypes
          For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
          Lethality
          Allele
          Sterility
          Allele
          Other Phenotypes
          Allele
          Phenotype manifest in
          Allele
          Orthologs
          Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
          Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
          Species\Gene Symbol
          Score
          Best Score
          Best Reverse Score
          Alignment
          Complementation?
          Transgene?
          6 of 15
          Yes
          Yes
          Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
          Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
          Species\Gene Symbol
          Score
          Best Score
          Best Reverse Score
          Alignment
          Complementation?
          Transgene?
          6 of 15
          Yes
          Yes
          Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
          5 of 13
          Yes
          Yes
          Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
          No orthologs reported.
          Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
          7 of 15
          Yes
          Yes
          Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
          2 of 15
          Yes
          No
          2 of 15
          Yes
          No
          2 of 15
          Yes
          No
          2 of 15
          Yes
          Yes
          Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (3)
          1 of 9
          Yes
          No
          1 of 9
          Yes
          No
          1 of 9
          Yes
          No
          Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
          3 of 15
          Yes
          No
          2 of 15
          No
          No
          1 of 15
          No
          Yes
          Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
          1 of 12
          Yes
          No
          Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091904OE )
          Organism
          Common Name
          Gene
          AAA Syntenic Ortholog
          Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
          Drosophila suzukii
          Spotted wing Drosophila
          Drosophila yakuba
          Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
          No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
          Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
          No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
          Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
          No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
          Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
          No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
          Human Disease Model Data
          FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
            Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
            Download
            Models ( 0 )
            Allele
            Disease
            Evidence
            References
            Interactions ( 0 )
            Allele
            Disease
            Interaction
            References
            Comments ( 0 )
             
            Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
            Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
            Homo sapiens (Human)
            Gene name
            Score
            OMIM
            OMIM Phenotype
            Complementation?
            Transgene?
            Functional Complementation Data
            Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
            Interactions
            Summary of Physical Interactions
            esyN Network Diagram
            Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
            Select Layout:
            Legend:
            Protein
            RNA
            Selected Interactor(s)
            Interactions Browser

            Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
            protein-protein
            Interacting group
            Assay
            References
            RNA-protein
            Interacting group
            Assay
            References
            Summary of Genetic Interactions
            esyN Network Diagram
            esyN Network Key:
            Suppression
            Enhancement

            Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
            Starting gene(s)
            Interaction type
            Interacting gene(s)
            Reference
            Starting gene(s)
            Interaction type
            Interacting gene(s)
            Reference
            External Data
            Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
            Interacts with eIF5B and faf. Interacts with gus (via B30.2/SPRY domain) and Fsn (via B30.2/SPRY domain). Interacts with aub, me31B, eIF-4a and TER94. Interacts with piwi; this interaction is RNA independent. Interacts with Dcr-1 and Fmr1; these interactions occur in the polar granules.
            (UniProt, P09052 )
            Linkouts
            Pathways
            Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
            External Data
            Linkouts
            Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
            Chromosome (arm)
            2L
            Recombination map
            2-50
            Cytogenetic map
            Sequence location
            2L:15,061,656..15,074,311 [+]
            FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
            Cytogenetic map
            Evidence for location
            35C1-35C1
            Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}Su(H)k07904 and P{EP}vigEP812&P{PZ}stc05441
            Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
            Cytogenetic map
            Notes
            References
            35B-35B
            (determined by in situ hybridisation)
            35C-35C
            (determined by in situ hybridisation)
            Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
            Left of (cM)
            Right of (cM)
            Notes
            Stocks and Reagents
            Stocks (19)
            Genomic Clones (26)
            cDNA Clones (61)
             

            Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

            cDNA clones, fully sequences
            BDGP DGC clones
            Other clones
              Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

              For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

              cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
              RNAi and Array Information
              Linkouts
              GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
              Antibody Information
              Laboratory Generated Antibodies
              Commercially Available Antibodies
               
              Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
              Other Information
              Relationship to Other Genes
              Source for database identify of
              Source for identity of: vas CG3506
              Source for database merge of
              Source for merge of: vas CG46283
              Additional comments
              Annotation CG43081 split into CG46282 (corresponds to solo) and CG46283 (corresponds to vas) in release 6.06 of the genome annotation. Split supported by distinct sequences and functions of vas and solo proteins.
              Annotations CG3506 and CG33678 merged as CG43081 in release 5.31 of the genome annotation.
              Other Comments
              vas binds with 1:1 stoichiometry to gus.
              vas is involved in oocyte differentiation and germline cyst development.
              vas is required, directly or indirectly, for the regulation of grk mRNA localisation.
              vas is required for the establishment of both anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral polarity of the oocyte.
              The polarity defects of vas mutants appear to be caused by a reduction in the amount of grk protein at stages of oogenesis critical for the establishment of polarity.
              An osk-vas complex seems to stimulates transcription of osk. The phosphorylation of short osk may act in the spatial restriction of osk translation to the posterior pole.
              osk, stau, vas and tud are essential for pole plasm formation.
              vas and tud are localised dependent of osk protein and are required to accumulate osk protein stably at the posterior pole.
              Localization of vas protein to the nuage particles is independent of the pole plasm assembly pathway, but formation of the nuage depends upon vas function.
              Molecular analysis of vas alleles suggests that recruitment of vas to the pole plasm must depend on protein-protein interactions, but, once localized, vas must bind to RNA to mediate germ cell formation.
              Distribution of tud protein in mutant embryos has been studied.
              The level of vas RNA in the ovary is controlled by the psq gene product.
              Only vas and tud are essential for osk-induced pole cell and abdomen formation.
              vas, vls and tud (but not stau, capu, or spir) are necessary for the 6xosk mutant phenotypes.
              The vas gene is critical for normal and ectopic localization of the posterior signal.
              BicD vas embryos suppress all abdominal development.
              Mutations at the vas locus cause defects in midoogenesis.
              vas mutant embryos lack nos activity.
              vas mutants exhibit deletion of the abdomen and pole plasm; amorphic mutants are sterile.
              vas- females fail to complete oogenesis and lay no eggs.
              vas plays a role in polar granule formation.
              vas protein does not accumulate in embryos from females mutant for capu and spir.
              Mutation in vas results in a maternal effect "grandchildless knirps-like" phenotype.
              Mutations in vas cause failure of germ cell formation and deletions in the abdominal segments in the embryo.
              Origin and Etymology
              Discoverer
              Etymology
              Identification
              External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 37 )
              Crossreferences
              NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
              GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
              GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
              RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
              UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
              UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
              Linkouts
              ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
              Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
              Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
              Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
              GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
              Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
              KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
              Synonyms and Secondary IDs (17)
              Reported As
              Symbol Synonym
              fs(2)ltoRJ36
              Name Synonyms
              Vasa
              (Yamashiro and Siomi, 2018, Bilinski et al., 2017, Dehghani and Lasko, 2017, Vrettos et al., 2017, Dehghani and Lasko, 2016, Hirakata and Siomi, 2016, Kotov et al., 2016, Sysoev et al., 2016, Zheng et al., 2016, Ayyub et al., 2015, Dehghani and Lasko, 2015, Dolezal et al., 2015, Molla-Herman et al., 2015, Reilly et al., 2015, Fidler et al., 2014, Hamada-Kawaguchi et al., 2014, Hughes et al., 2014, Matsuoka et al., 2014, Satyaki et al., 2014, Barton et al., 2013, Chen et al., 2013, Eun et al., 2013, Ismat et al., 2013, Joly et al., 2013, Kugler et al., 2013, Leibfried et al., 2013, Pancratov et al., 2013, Simkin et al., 2013, Vagin et al., 2013, Xin et al., 2013, Zhao et al., 2013, Azzam et al., 2012, Fukunaga et al., 2012, Green and Extavour, 2012, Hohl et al., 2012, Ile et al., 2012, Insco et al., 2012, Ji and Tulin, 2012, McDermott et al., 2012, Monk et al., 2012, Nagel et al., 2012, Nagel et al., 2012, Neumüller et al., 2012, Ottone et al., 2012, Pek et al., 2012, Sanghavi et al., 2012, Toledano et al., 2012, Tsigkari et al., 2012, Yuan et al., 2012, Bader et al., 2011, Cheng et al., 2011, Degennaro et al., 2011, Eliazer et al., 2011, Gerbasi et al., 2011, Graham et al., 2011, Grillo et al., 2011, Kearse et al., 2011, Klenov et al., 2011, König et al., 2011, McElwain et al., 2011, Mukai et al., 2011, Okegbe and DiNardo, 2011, Parrott et al., 2011, Sinsimer et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Zamparini et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Hartman et al., 2010, Inaba et al., 2010, Kugler et al., 2010, Kugler et al., 2010, Leatherman and Dinardo, 2010, Liu et al., 2010, Liu et al., 2010, Monk et al., 2010, Patil and Kai, 2010, Singh et al., 2010, Tastan et al., 2010, Wu et al., 2010, Adolph et al., 2009, Aruna et al., 2009, Chen et al., 2009, Gouw et al., 2009, Guo and Wang, 2009, Hashiyama et al., 2009, Hayashi et al., 2009, Issigonis et al., 2009, Klattenhoff et al., 2009, Li et al., 2009, Li et al., 2009, Liu et al., 2009, Moore et al., 2009, Nanda et al., 2009, Nie et al., 2009, Ricardo and Lehmann, 2009, Riparbelli et al., 2009, Sheng et al., 2009, Sheng et al., 2009, Suyama et al., 2009, Szakmary et al., 2009, Yang et al., 2009, Bosveld et al., 2008, Cheng et al., 2008, Gavis et al., 2008, Jiang et al., 2008, Jin et al., 2008, Kunwar et al., 2008, Leatherman and DiNardo, 2008, Meignin and Davis, 2008, Neumuller et al., 2008, Salomon and Jackson, 2008, Sun et al., 2008, Tiwari and Roy, 2008, Yamada et al., 2008, Yogev et al., 2008, Zhao et al., 2008, Bogard et al., 2007, Chen et al., 2007, Chen et al., 2007, Chicoine et al., 2007, Clark et al., 2007, Clough et al., 2007, Deshpande et al., 2007, Kadyrova et al., 2007, Kalamegham et al., 2007, Kitadate et al., 2007, Klattenhoff et al., 2007, Kugler and Lasko, 2007, Maines et al., 2007, Orsborn et al., 2007, Parma et al., 2007, Sato et al., 2007, Song et al., 2007, Song et al., 2007, Strome and Lehmann, 2007, Tanentzapf et al., 2007, Vanzo et al., 2007, Yamashita et al., 2007, Yamashita et al., 2007, Yang et al., 2007, Bolivar et al., 2006, Casper and Van Doren, 2006, Deshpande et al., 2006, Gilboa and Lehmann, 2006, Irion et al., 2006, Lin et al., 2006, Niki, 2006, Niki et al., 2006, O'Reilly et al., 2006, Poulton and Deng, 2006, Schupbach et al., 2006, Sengoku et al., 2006, Seydoux and Braun, 2006, Siddall et al., 2006, Singh et al., 2006, Terry et al., 2006, Riparbelli et al., 2005, Sano et al., 2005, Wawersik et al., 2005, Yamashita et al., 2005, Renault et al., 2004, Renault et al., 2004, Burnett and Howard, 2003, Bhat and Schedl, 1997)
              female sterile(2)ltoRJ36
              vasa
              (Champer et al., 2018, Marie et al., 2017, Blumenstiel et al., 2016, Gantz and Bier, 2016, Ryazansky et al., 2016, Kao et al., 2015, Liu and Lasko, 2015, Yu et al., 2015, Blanchard et al., 2014, Deshpande et al., 2014, Tsai et al., 2014, Xiol et al., 2014, Buszard et al., 2013, Handler et al., 2013, Seervai and Wessel, 2013, Yan and McKee, 2013, Cash and Andrews, 2012, Castillo et al., 2011, Chan et al., 2011, Degennaro et al., 2011, Jaglarz et al., 2011, Kirilly et al., 2011, Liu et al., 2011, Michel et al., 2011, Pek and Kai, 2011, Pek and Kai, 2011, Shpiz et al., 2011, Sui and Yang, 2011, Vu and Nuzhdin, 2011, Yadlapalli et al., 2011, Anne, 2010, Bakhrat et al., 2010, Gonsalvez et al., 2010, Janic et al., 2010, Kirino et al., 2010, Olivieri et al., 2010, Patil and Kai, 2010, Yan et al., 2010, Yu et al., 2010, Casper and Van Doren, 2009, de Las Heras et al., 2009, Malone et al., 2009, Maybeck and Röper, 2009, Ochoa-Espinosa et al., 2009, Robine et al., 2009, Shen et al., 2009, Shpiz et al., 2009, Blanco and Gehring, 2008, Kalmykova et al., 2008, Leatherman and DiNardo, 2008, Lee et al., 2008, Morris et al., 2008, Di Stefano et al., 2007, Georlette et al., 2007, Goldman et al., 2007, Nakamura et al., 2007, Nishida et al., 2007, Shpiz et al., 2007, Tadros et al., 2007, Wang and Riechmann, 2007, Frydman et al., 2006, Linder and Lasko, 2006, Musters et al., 2006, Shigenobu et al., 2006, Shigenobu et al., 2006, Wallenfang et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Harbison et al., 2005, McHugh et al., 2004, Snee and Macdonald, 2004, Asaoka et al., 1998, Heller and Steinmann-Zwicky, 1998, Oliver and Pauli, 1998, Boyle et al., 1997, Newmark et al., 1997, Ohlstein and McKearin, 1997, Seydoux and Dunn, 1997, Docquier et al., 1996, Staab and Steinmann-Zwicky, 1996, Schulz et al., 1993, St. Johnston, 1993, Beckemeyer and Shirk, 1992, Ashburner, 1991, de Valoir et al., 1991, Montell et al., 1991, Dorer et al., 1990, Raff et al., 1990, Struhl, 1989, Ashburner, 1988.10.20, Driever and Nusslein-Volhard, 1988, Tautz, 1988)
              Secondary FlyBase IDs
              • FBgn0262526
              • FBgn0003970
              • FBgn0004805
              • FBgn0283441
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              References (813)