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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\slmb
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
supernumerary limbs
Annotation Symbol
CG3412
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0283468
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
supernumerary limbs (slmb) encodes an essential, conserved F-box protein and a component of the SCF (Skp/Cullin/F-box) E3 ubiquitin-ligase, providing substrate specificity to the SCF. It negatively regulates multiple signaling pathways and cellular processes by promoting the proteasome-mediated degradation or cleavage of its targets, including the products of arm and ci (Wg and Hh signaling), SAK, per and Cap-H2. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As

slimb, shv, shiva, ica, wellman

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:21,119,252..21,127,485 [-]
Recombination map

3-70

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:21119252..21127485
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (42 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR021977
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (37 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (36 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in circadian rhythm
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:dco; FB:FBgn0002413
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:per; FB:FBgn0003068
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in locomotor rhythm
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:POSH; FB:FBgn0040294
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:smo; FB:FBgn0003444
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Pka-C1; FB:FBgn0000273
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:TER94; FB:FBgn0286784
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
involved_in proteolysis
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
F BOX AND WD DOMAIN PROTEINS -
F box and WD domain (FBXW) proteins are F box proteins which contain WD40 repeats. F box proteins are the variable substrate adapters for Skp, Cullin, F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. (Adapted from FBrf0225076).
SCF-SLMB UBIQUITIN LIGASE COMPLEX -
SCF-slmb ubiquitin ligase complex ubiquitinates proteins, targeting them for degradation by the proteasome. (FBrf0217546).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of Wnt-TCF (canonical Wnt) signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the attenuation of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
Negative Regulators of Insulin-like Receptor Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of the Insulin-like Receptor signaling pathway suppress Insulin-like receptor (InR) activation or the activity of intracellular effectors. (Adapted from FBrf0232297, FBrf0230017 and FBrf0229989).
Negative Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of hedgehog signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the repression of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
Positive Regulators of Toll-NF-κB Signaling Pathway -
In Drosophila, the canonical Toll signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a spatzle ligand to Toll (Tl) or a Toll-like receptor leading to the nuclear localization of the NF-κB (dl or Dif) transcription factor. Positive regulators of Toll-NF-κB Signaling lead to the increased nuclear accumulation of the NF-κB proteins and regulated expression of target genes. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
Negative Regulators of Imd Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway result in the decreased activity of the NFκB-like transcription factor Rel in the nucleus. Negative regulators are important in preventing damage to the host from over-activation of the pathway; preventing inappropriate triggering or terminating the response. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
Negative Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Negative regulators of the pathway promote the nuclear accumulation of yki, enhancing yki-mediated transcriptional regulation and the expression of genes that positively regulate tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

beta-transducin family Trp-Asp repeats family - subunit of a multi-protein complex that targets proteins for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway - an important regulator of Wingless, Hedgehog and Dorsal pathways

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\slmb for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Stop-codon suppression (UAA) postulated; FBrf0216884.

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0084032
3492
510
FBtr0330049
3492
597
FBtr0333931
2549
510
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

4.0, 3.0, 2.6 (northern blot)

2.154 (compiled cDNA)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0083434
59.0
510
7.67
FBpp0303082
68.6
597
5.18
FBpp0306059
59.0
510
7.67
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

510 aa isoforms: slmb-PA, slmb-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\slmb using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | ubiquitous

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\slmb in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 36 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 27 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of slmb
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of slmb
Deletions and Duplications ( 4 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult cuticle & head | dorsal | somatic clone
centrosome & neuroblast
germarium region 2b & germline cyst | somatic clone
germarium region 3 & germline cyst | somatic clone
macrochaeta & wing margin
mitotic cell cycle & neuroblast
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
1  
11 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (5)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (5)
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091904T1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091503O5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03GQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03DK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0437 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (5)
3 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Negative Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of Wnt-TCF (canonical Wnt) signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the attenuation of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
    Negative Regulators of Insulin-like Receptor Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of the Insulin-like Receptor signaling pathway suppress Insulin-like receptor (InR) activation or the activity of intracellular effectors. (Adapted from FBrf0232297, FBrf0230017 and FBrf0229989).
    Negative Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of hedgehog signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the repression of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
    Positive Regulators of Toll-NF-κB Signaling Pathway -
    In Drosophila, the canonical Toll signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a spatzle ligand to Toll (Tl) or a Toll-like receptor leading to the nuclear localization of the NF-κB (dl or Dif) transcription factor. Positive regulators of Toll-NF-κB Signaling lead to the increased nuclear accumulation of the NF-κB proteins and regulated expression of target genes. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
    Negative Regulators of Imd Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway result in the decreased activity of the NFκB-like transcription factor Rel in the nucleus. Negative regulators are important in preventing damage to the host from over-activation of the pathway; preventing inappropriate triggering or terminating the response. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
    Negative Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
    The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Negative regulators of the pathway promote the nuclear accumulation of yki, enhancing yki-mediated transcriptional regulation and the expression of genes that positively regulate tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-70

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:21,119,252..21,127,485 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    93B13-93C1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Atpα01164 and P{PZ}mod(mdg4)07038&P{lacW}mod(mdg4)L3101
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    93B10-93B11
    93B10-93B11
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    93B1-93B11
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    62B4-62B5
    68C12--13 93B10--11
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (24)
    Genomic Clones (22)
    cDNA Clones (124)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: slmb CG3412

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: slmb CG3412

    Source for merge of: slmb wel

    Source for merge of: slmb BcDNA:GM02031

    Source for merge of: slmb shv

    Source for merge of: slmb ica

    Source for merge of: slmb MENE(3R)-B

    Additional comments

    Source for merge of slmb CG3412 was sequence comparison ( date:000414 ).

    Source for merge of slmb BcDNA:GM02031 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).

    Other Comments

    slmb antagonises the aPKC/par-6 complex to control oocyte and epithelial polarity.

    slmb maintains an S-phase reduplication block by down-regulating SAK on centrioles.

    Processing of ci-155 to the repressor ci-75 is mediated by direct binding to slmb.

    Identified as a component of the hh signalling pathway in a genome-wide RNAi screen. dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed affects the extent of expression of a hh signaling reporter construct in Clone 8 cells.

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

    Identified in a germline clone screen for mutants that are defective in localisation of an Avic\GFP-stau marker in living oocytes. 2 alleles of wel have been identified in the screen.

    slmb is an essential part of the circadian clock, it controls the levels of clock proteins per and tim.

    slmb is likely to be involved, in addition to its repression role on dpp and wg, in some other essential cellular mechanism that would be essential for maintaining imaginal cells affinities.

    Isolated in an EMS screen for recessive mutations that alter normal adult patterning in somatic clones.

    Loss of slmb function results in a cell-autonomous accumulation of high levels of both ci and arm and ectopic expression of both hh- and wg- responsive genes.

    slmb negatively regulates hh and wg signal transduction.

    Strong alleles cause embryonic lethality while weak alleles cause larval and pupal lethality.

    slmb coordinates wg and dpp expression in the dorsal-ventral and anterior-posterior axes during limb development.

    Isolated in a screen for mutations that modify fu phenotypes.

    Identified in an adult mosaic screen for negative regulators of cell proliferation.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology

    Given the name "pingiel", after one of Pavlov's dogs.

    To reflect the fact that many of the mutants isolated in this screen disrupt Avic\GFP-stau localisation to the anterior and/or posterior pole of the oocyte, many of the complementation groups identified in the screen have been named after polar explorers who failed to reach the North or South pole.

    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 74 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (29)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    BcDNA:GM02031
    MENE (3R)-B
    Slimb/beta-TrCP
    Slimb/β-TRCP
    crd
    l(3)00295
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0260565
    • FBgn0267841
    • FBgn0023423
    • FBgn0016060
    • FBgn0023437
    • FBgn0063206
    • FBgn0067639
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (312)