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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\LIMK1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
LIM domain kinase 1
Annotation Symbol
CG1848
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0283712
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) encodes a protein that belongs to a phylogenetically conserved family of serine/threonine kinases. It is a potent stabilizer of the actin cytoskeleton by inactivating the product of tsr. It stabilizes the synapse structure at the neuromuscular junction and promotes synaptic remodeling and glomerular development in the developing antennal lobe. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
Limk, Dlimk, agnostic, agn, LIM kinase
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:12,584,385..12,592,193 [-]
Recombination map
1-39
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family. (Q8IR79)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
NON-RECEPTOR TLK KINASES -
Non-receptor tyrosine kinase-like (TKL) kinases are a diverse group of intracellular serine-threonine protein kinases with sequence similarity to tyrosine kinases (TK) but lacking TK-specific motifs.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Protein kinase which regulates actin filament dynamics. Phosphorylates and inactivates the actin binding/depolymerizing factor tsr/cofilin, thereby stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton. Modulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics may be essential for imaginal disk morphogenesis and axon guidance.
(UniProt, Q8IR79)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
agn: agnostic
Identified as three temperature sensitive lethal mutations. Adenylate cyclase activity somewhat higher than normal at 22 and readily activated at 29. Phosphodiesterase activity assayed in heat-pretreated homogenates higher than normal. Locomotor activity decreased and learning activity increased at 22, like dnc at 29.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
serine/threonine kinase - functions via cytoskeleton to confer the added synapse-stabilizing activity of the BMP receptor Wishful thinking
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\LIMK1 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\LIMK1 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0073659
4964
1235
FBtr0073660
5627
1257
FBtr0073661
4814
1052
FBtr0301830
4520
1235
FBtr0301831
4187
1043
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0073492
136.7
1235
8.84
FBpp0073493
139.3
1257
8.76
FBpp0073494
117.1
1052
9.88
FBpp0291044
136.7
1235
8.84
FBpp0291045
115.9
1043
9.59
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1235 aa isoforms: LIMK1-PA, LIMK1-PE
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with LATS1, and this interaction inhibits phosphorylation of tsr/cofilin.
(UniProt, Q8IR79)
Post Translational Modification
Phosphorylated on serine and/or threonine residues by ROCK1. Phosphorylated by PAK4 resulting in increased LIMK1 ability to phosphorylate cofilin. May be dephosphorylated and inactivated by SSH1 (By similarity).
(UniProt, Q8IR79)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\LIMK1 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (14 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000719, InterPro:IPR017441
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001510238
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:ct; FB:FBgn0004198
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001510238
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:6613
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001510238
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001510238
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\LIMK1 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 12 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 17 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of LIMK1
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of LIMK1
Deletions and Duplications ( 11 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
dorsal mesothoracic disc & actin filament, with Scer\GAL4en-e16E
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (38)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091901AE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915031Y )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W02OL )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X02LW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G03ZL )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with LATS1, and this interaction inhibits phosphorylation of tsr/cofilin.
(UniProt, Q8IR79 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map
1-39
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:12,584,385..12,592,193 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
11B2-11B2
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG11138EP1313 and P{EP}EP1632&P{EP}EP1449
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Determined by deficiency mapping (details unspecified).
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (14)
Genomic Clones (19)
 
cDNA Clones (45)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of
Source for merge of: CG1848 LIM-kinase
Source for merge of: LIMK1 agn
Additional comments
Source for merge of CG1848 LIM-kinase was sequence comparison ( date:001028 ).
Other Comments
LIMK1 is a regulator of tsr function and a downstream effector of Pak.
dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
RNAi experiments show that dsRNA targetted at this gene suppresses the Pten-dsRNA-induced cell shape changes in Kc167 cells.
dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene is tested in an RNAi screen for effects on actin-based lamella formation.
agn controls calmodulin properties by encoding a calmodulin-inhibiting protein.
Mutation at the agn gene results in increased PDE-1 activity.
Known from temperature sensitive lethal mutations that affect phosphodiesterase and adenyl cyclase activity, and have learning defects.
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 58 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (35)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
LIM-kinase 1
l(1)11Af
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0041203
  • FBgn0030402
  • FBgn0000060
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (128)