Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\βTub56D
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
β-Tubulin at 56D
Annotation Symbol
CG9277
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0284243
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As

β-tubulin, β1-tubulin, β1, β1 tubulin, tubulin

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:19,447,319..19,451,600 [-]
Recombination map

2-89

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:19447319..19451600
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the tubulin family. (Q24560)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
BETA TUBULINS -
Tubulins are cytoskeletal proteins. α- and β-tubulin heterodimers polymerise to form microtubules, the roles of which include mechanical strength, intracellular trafficking and chromosome segregation. (Adapted from PMID:1121746).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
(UniProt, Q24560)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
βTub56D (β1t)
A structural gene for β-tubulin. Its mRNA is maternally stored in the oocytes and expressed in the nurse cells and in early embryos (Natzle and McCarthy, 1984; Gasch et al., 1988); at this stage, the transcripts are evenly distributed throughout the embryo, but later in development they are concentrated in the primordia of the nervous system and their derivatives (the supra-oesophageal ganglion and ventral nerve cord) and in the visceral mesoderm. Since βTub56D is expressed throughout development and in all adult tissues (Rudolph et al., 1987), βTub56D tubulin is probably involved in all the microtubular structures necessary for cell division and cell shape (Raff et al., 1982; Biolojan et al., 1984). It is the major β-tubulin of adult flies in all structures except the testis.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

ß Tubulin56D - ubiquitious component of cytoskeleton

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\βTub56D or the JBrowse view of Dmel\βTub56D for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0086537
1701
456
FBtr0086536
1596
447
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.75 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0085721
51.3
456
4.65
FBpp0085720
50.1
447
4.49
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

51, 48 (kD observed)

53 (kD observed)

Comments

The β tubulin βTub56D protein is shown to

interact with microtubule motor proteins as well as the α tubulin subunit by

chemical crosslinking. βTub56D and αTub84D form a complex of 106 or

101 kD, βTub56D and ncd form a complex of 95 kD while βTub56D and

Khc form a complex of 82 kD.

External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells. Interacts with mgr and Vhl.

(UniProt, Q24560)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\βTub56D using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (9 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR003008, InterPro:IPR008280
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 0-21 hr AEL

radioisotope in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 0-19 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data

localization of acetylated or glutamylated tubulin detected; found only in stabilized microtubules.

Highest levels of βTub56D protein are detected at 26-96 hours of pupation.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{β1WHI}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacZβTub56D.NC}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\βTub56D in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 24 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 15 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of βTub56D
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of βTub56D
Deletions and Duplications ( 4 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (12)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
No
 
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
No
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (11)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
No
7 of 13
No
No
6 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
No
5 of 13
No
No
4 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (9)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
5 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (12)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (7)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (9)
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
7 of 9
No
Yes
7 of 9
No
Yes
7 of 9
No
No
6 of 9
No
No
6 of 9
No
No
5 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500LC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00GJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X04HG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G06U2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (11)
8 of 10
7 of 10
7 of 10
4 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 3 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells. Interacts with mgr and Vhl.
    (UniProt, Q24560 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map

    2-89

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:19,447,319..19,451,600 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    56D7-56D8
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}htsk06121 and P{lacW}l(2)k00705k00705&P{lacW}mei-W68k05603
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    56D7-56D9
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    56D10-56D12
    56D10--14 56D5--6 56D7--10 56D7--9 56D8--11 56D8--9
    56D-56D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    56C-56C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (21)
    Genomic Clones (18)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (756)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      Other clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: βTub56D CG9277

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: βTub56D l(2)k00705

      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      Host gene for maternally inherited stable intronic sequence RNA (sisRNA).

      Candidate stable intronic sequence RNA (sisRNA) identified within 5'UTR of this gene.

      Mutants isolated in a screen of the second chromosome identifying genes affecting disc morphology.

      Insertion of a myotube into the epidermis is a prerequisite for the induction of βTub56D transcription; muscle loss (e.g. in rost and insc mutants) abolishes βTub56D transcription in the corresponding apodemes.

      Analysis of βTub56D regulatory elements using Ecol\lacZ reporter gene expression.

      Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs have identified three separate elements localised either far upstream, either promoter proximal or within the intron of βTub56D necessary for the full level of βTub56D gene expression.

      Mixtures of ncd or Khc motor domain treated with the zero-length cross linker EDC generates covalently cross linked products of ncd or Khc with βTub56D and ncd or Khc with αTub84B. These results indicate that kinesin family motors of opposite polarity interact with both βTub56D and αTub84B and support a model in which some portion of each ncd or Khc proteins motor domain overlaps adjacent βTub56D and αTub84B subunits.

      Gene contains an RNA polymerase II complex which pauses after synthesis of a short transcript. In vivo ultraviolet crosslinking techniques demonstrate phosphorylation of the carboxy terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II could either regulate the transition of polymerase from a paused to an elongated complex or be a consequence of the transition from paused to elongated.

      A fragment of the D.melanogaster βTub56D gene has been used as a probe for in situ hybridisation of Chrysomya rufifacies polytene chromosomes.

      Splicing of βTub56D RNA has been studied in B5228 mutant embryos.

      The large intron 1 of βTub56D is conserved with β3 tubulin genes. The regulatory regions responsible for expression of βTub56D in somatic cells of the testis are located in the single large intron positioned between the codons of amino acids 19 and 20. Transcription of βTub56D in germ cells is dependent on upstream sequences, deletion analysis demonstrates a short promoter-proximal fragment is responsible.

      βTub56D-lacZ fusions were used to study the expression of βTub56D in muscle attachment sites. Promoter/intron deletion analysis identified a classic 14bp enhancer present in the βTub56D intron in 3 copies: no cooperativity of effect on expression is evident for the enhancer. Expression of βTub56D begins as the muscles make contact with the muscle attachment sites.

      Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs demonstrate that transcription of βTub56D starts shortly after the action of genes which participate in the decision of epidermal versus neural cell fate. Expression is regulated by independent, cell-type specific enhancers in the intron for the PNS and apodemes, while maternal and CNS expression is directed by cooperation between upstream promoter elements and corresponding enhancers in the intron.

      The distribution of βTub56D, βTub60D and βTub85D proteins in the testes has been analysed.

      The degree of homology between βTub85D and βTub56D is high.

      Tubulins are the main structural components of microtubules in mitotic and meiotic spindles, cilia, flagella, neural processes and the cytoskeleton; nontubulin proteins (MAPS or microtubule-associated proteins) are involved along with tubulins in the formation of specialized microtubules (Theurkauf, Baum, Bo and Wensink, 1986; Rudolph, Kimble, Hoyle, Subler and Raff, 1987). Tubulin proteins are found in a wide variety of species from unicellular organisms to man; their biochemical and molecular structure is highly conserved. The α- and β-subunits from different organisms can be combined in vitro into hybrid microtubule structures and there is a high level of primary amino acid sequence identity in the proteins (Sanchez, Natzle, Cleveland, Kirschner and McCarthy, 1980; Raff, 1984). In D.melanogaster, two multigene families, each made up of four members, code for α- and β-tubulins, each tubulin subunit being a 55,000 dalton polypeptide. The tubulin genes in each multigene family are dispersed in the second and/or third chromosomes rather than arranged in clusters. βTub56D is a structural gene for β-tubulin. Its mRNA is maternally stored in the oocytes and expressed in the nurse cells and in early embryos (Natzle and McCarthy, 1984; Gasch, Hinz, Leiss and Renkawitz-Pohl, 1988); at this stage, the transcripts are evenly distributed throughout the embryo, but later in development they are concentrated in the primordia of the nervous system and their derivatives (the supra-oesophageal ganglion and ventral nerve cord) and in the visceral mesoderm. Since βTub56D is expressed throughout development and in all adult tissues (Rudolph, Kimble, Hoyle, Subler and Raff, 1987), βTub56D tubulin is probably involved in all the microtubular structures necessary for cell division and cell shape (Raff, Fuller, Kaufman, Kemphues, Rudolph and Raff, 1982; Biolojan et al., 1984). It is the major β-tubulin of adult flies in all structures except the testis.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 51 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Linkouts
      ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (65)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      A1ZBL0_DROME
      BetaTub56D
      l(2)k00705
      β-tubulin
      β56D
      β1 tubulin
      β1-tubulin
      βTub1
      Name Synonyms
      &bgr-tubulin 56D
      Beta tubulin
      TUBULIN B-1 CHAIN
      Tubulin β-1 chain
      Tubulin β1-chain
      b-tubulin56D
      beta tubulin
      beta-1 tubulin
      beta-1-tubulin
      beta-Tubulin 56D
      beta-Tubulin at 56 D
      beta-tubulin 56D
      lethal (2) k00705
      β-Tubulin at 56D
      β-tubulin-56D
      β1-Tubulin
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0003887
      • FBgn0022261
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (293)