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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\btl
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
breathless
Annotation Symbol
CG32134
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0285896
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Receptor protein-tyrosine kinase (2.7.10.1)
Gene Snapshot
breathless (btl) encodes a fibroblast growth factor (FGF) ligand for the transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor encoded by bnl that utilizes the intracellular Ras-MAP kinase pathway. It contributes to embryonic tracheal migration. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-12]
Also Known As
dev, FGFR, DFR2, FGF receptor, DFGF-R1
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:14,075,772..14,083,229 [+]
Recombination map
3-42
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. Fibroblast growth factor receptor subfamily. (Q09147)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate (2.7.10.1)
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate (2.7.10.1)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASES -
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) are single-pass transmembrane receptors expressed on the plasma membrane. Upon the binding of an extracellular signalling molecule (e.g. growth factors, hormones), RTKs dimerize leading to the activation of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and intermolecular phosphorylation. The phosphotyrosines function as specific sites for the assembly, phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling molecules. (Adapted from PMID:20602996).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of secreted FGFs - bnl or ths/pyr to receptor tyrosine kinases btl or htl, respectively, to initiate signaling primarily via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0221038).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
May be required for patterning of muscle precursor cells: generation of mesodermal and endodermal layers, invaginations of various types of cells, and CNS formation. Essential for the ability of the migrating tracheal and midline cells to recognize external guiding cues.
(UniProt, Q09147)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
dev: devenir
Isolated as a dominant suppressor of Pc mutations. Associated with recessive larval lethality. Lowered survival and loss of humeral bristles in combination with D3 may indicate allelism with Dichaete, but it is difficult to ascertain.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\btl or the JBrowse view of Dmel\btl for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0075778
3905
1052
FBtr0100676
3753
1052
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.3 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075520
117.8
1052
6.20
FBpp0100143
117.8
1052
6.20
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1052 aa isoforms: btl-PA, btl-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\btl using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (29 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000719, InterPro:IPR017441
(assigned by InterPro )
traceable author statement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with MGI:MGI:95522
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002356460
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (21 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (19 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:bnl; FB:FBgn0014135
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Ras85D; FB:FBgn0003205
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with cytoneme
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002356460
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:3688
inferred by curator from GO:0005007
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002356460
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: expression is lower in adults than earlier stages

Additional Descriptive Data
Expression pattern inferred from unspecified enhancer trap line.
Transcript is detected in the 10 ectodermal placodes that specify the trachea. Expression begins a short time after the trh protein is first detected in this region.
btl transcripts first become detectable in tracheal placodes at stage 10 and reach maximal levels by stage 11. At stage 12, six major buds grow out in different directions. It was observed that transverse connectives and primary branches not giving off secondary and terminal branches lose btl expression at earlier stages while primary branches from which secondary and terminal branches are given off appear to continue to express btl until later stages.
btl expression is first observed in the anterior and posterior midgut primordia at the beginning of germ band extension. The expression becomes more prominent when the midguts invaginate. At stage 8, expression is observed along the ventral midline. By stage 10, expression is observed in cells contributing to tracheal pit formation. Finally, at stage 13, btl expression is observed in cells corresponding to presumptive salivary ducts and salivary tubes.
btl expression is detected just before the onset of gastrulation at stage 5 at the posterior pole and in two groups of ventral cells at the anterior tip of the embryo. During gastrulation, btl expression is detected in the mesectodermal precursor cells as they migrate toward the midline, where they meet to form the midline precursor cells. Expression continues in the midline cells and becomes modulated in a segmental manner. During stage 12, btl expression is most pronounced in the midline cells in the posterior half of each segment. This includes the VUM neurons and the posterior pair of midline glial cells.
Expression in the midline and tracheal pits was observed at about 10% of wild type levels.
Only trace amounts of btl transcripts are detected.
btl transcripts are expressed throughout development with maximal levels in 0-12hr embryos. They are detected in the cells surrounding the developing tracheal pits in germ band extended embryos.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
bnl protein is expressed in two bowl-like sets of cells in the A9 primordium of the male genital discs of third instar larvae.
The btl protein is localized to tracheal placodes which form the tracheal pits. It is later seen along the entire developing tracheal tree. btl protein is also found on the delaminating neuronal and glial precursors of the midline and in the cells opposite the clypeolabrum in the stomodeal opening.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with cytoneme
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{btl(FRT.y+)GAL4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
trachea

Comment: heat-shock dependent

Reporter: P{btl-lacZ.ABP}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{btl-lacZ.B23}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{btl-lacZ.B123}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{btl-moe.mRFP1}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4-btl.S}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}btl6-81
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacZ}Tracheal-2
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lwB}H82
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | restricted

Comment: expression is along embryonic midline

Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\btl in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 41 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 23 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of btl
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of btl
Deletions and Duplications ( 21 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
air sac tracheoblast of dorsal mesothoracic disc & filopodium
axon & dorsal cluster neuron, with Scer\GAL4ato.3.6
axon & dorsal cluster neuron & adult brain, with Scer\GAL4ato.3.6
embryonic/larval dorsal branch & terminal tracheal cell | somatic clone
embryonic tracheal system & filopodium
tracheal tip cell & filopodium
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (19)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
No
11 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (19)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
No
11 of 15
Yes
No
9 of 15
No
No
9 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (18)
10 of 13
Yes
No
10 of 13
Yes
No
9 of 13
No
No
6 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (17)
9 of 12
Yes
No
8 of 12
No
No
6 of 12
No
No
5 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (27)
12 of 15
Yes
No
11 of 15
No
No
9 of 15
No
No
8 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (27)
11 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (32)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902XP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500EG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01FR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01DY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0CQZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (23)
7 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 12 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of secreted FGFs - bnl or ths/pyr to receptor tyrosine kinases btl or htl, respectively, to initiate signaling primarily via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0221038).
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-42
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:14,075,772..14,083,229 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    70C5-70D2
    Left limit from (method unavailable) (FBrf0067338) Right limit from (method unavailable) (FBrf0067338); Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)70Da02402&P{PZ}btl00208 and P{PZ}Mpcp00564
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    70D1-70D2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 70D1 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    70D1-70D2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    70C-70C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (59)
    Genomic Clones (14)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (8)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        BDGP DGC clones
          RNAi and Array Information
          Linkouts
          Antibody Information
          Laboratory Generated Antibodies
          Commercially Available Antibodies
           
          Other Information
          Relationship to Other Genes
          Source for database identify of
          Source for database merge of
          Source for merge of: btl dev
          Source for merge of: dev l(3)j2E11
          Additional comments
          l(3)L0499 may correspond to btl: the P{lacW}l(3)L0499L0499 insertion maps within the transcription unit.
          Identified by PCR fragment; relationship to other protein tyrosine kinase genes not known.
          Lowered survival and loss of humeral bristles in combination with D3 may indicate allelism with D, but it is difficult to ascertain.
          Other Comments
          btl is required during tracheal branching morphogenesis. A cell at the branch tip requires btl and leads outgrowth. Trailing cells do not require btl. There appears to be competition (involving N-mediated lateral inhibition) between tracheal cells, such that those with the highest btl activity take the lead position at the branch tip and those with less btl activity assume subsidiary positions and form the branch stalk.
          One of 42 Drosophila genes identified as being most likely to reveal molecular and cellular mechanisms of nervous system development or plasticity relevant to human Mental Retardation disorders.
          dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
          btl signalling is inhibited by sty.
          btl expression in the developing trachea is regulated by direct interactions between trh/tgo heterodimers and three central midline elements located in the btl minimum enhancer.
          Phylogenetic analysis of the PTK family.
          Tracheal cell migration defects in vvl mutant embryos are rescued by ubiquitous expression of btl.
          Maintenance of high level btl expression requires wild-type vvl function. Characterisation of btl regulatory sequences identifies seven high affinity and one low affinity vvl recognition elements, implying direct transcriptional regulation of btl expression by vvl.
          Spatially regulated btl activity guides tracheal cell migration and determines the pattern of secondary and terminal branches by selecting tracheal cell fates. Thus regulation of btl activity is key to each phase of tracheal morphogenesis.
          The btl FGF receptor, required for primary tracheal branching, is also required to activate expression of markers involved in secondary branching.
          bnl appears to function as a ligand for btl.
          Mutations of btl interact with Dfd to reduce the viability of the Dfd3/Dfd13 combination.
          btl is a key, direct target of the slbo transcription factor in the regulation of border cell migration.
          btl is obligatory primarily for the onset of the tracheal migration process and is also required for the formation of tracheoles.
          The normal activity of btl in promoting cell migration does not require spatially restricted cues.
          Disruption of the trachea, using overlapping deletions that remove btl abolishes the ability of the intersegmental nerve to extend through the lateral part of the embryo.
          Mutations at btl affect tracheal development, and migration of posterior pair of midline glial cells to posterior commisure.
          Associated with recessive larval lethality.
          The btl gene product participates in receiving spatial clues that guide tracheal cell outgrowth.
          btl is one of the 18 loci identified in a screen for dominant modifiers of Pc and/or Antp phenotypes.
          Isolation: as a dominant suppressor of Pc mutations.
          Origin and Etymology
          Discoverer
          Kennison, 1983.
          Etymology
          Identification
          External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 106 )
          Sequence Crossreferences
          NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
          GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
          GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
          RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
          UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          Other crossreferences
          KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
          KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
          Synonyms and Secondary IDs (37)
          Reported As
          Symbol Synonym
          HD-311
          Tk2
          btl
          (Lovato et al., 2019, Sohr et al., 2019, Whittle and Extavour, 2019, Zhang et al., 2019, Du et al., 2018, Lee et al., 2018, Du et al., 2017, Jordán-Álvarez et al., 2017, Neuert et al., 2017, Calleja et al., 2016, Gene Disruption Project members, 2016-, Kockel et al., 2016, Lebreton and Casanova, 2016, Miao and Hayashi, 2016, Moulton and Letsou, 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Burnette and Zartman, 2015, Cheng and Andrew, 2015, Denes et al., 2015, Matsuda et al., 2015, Matsuda et al., 2015, Peterson and Krasnow, 2015, Zhai et al., 2015, Chandran et al., 2014, Chen and Krasnow, 2014, Iordanou et al., 2014, Robbins et al., 2014, Sopko et al., 2014, Chu et al., 2013, Muha and Müller, 2013, Ozkan et al., 2013, Rousso et al., 2013, Rudolf et al., 2013, Sen et al., 2013, Sopko and Perrimon, 2013, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Mukherjee et al., 2012, Ruiz et al., 2012, Schottenfeld-Roames and Ghabrial, 2012, Yáñez-Cuna et al., 2012, Chatterjee et al., 2011, Friedman et al., 2011, Gervais and Casanova, 2011, Jones and Metzstein, 2011, Mariappa et al., 2011, Mast et al., 2011, Roy et al., 2011, Roy et al., 2011, Sen et al., 2011, Baer et al., 2010, Biehs et al., 2010, Chanut-Delalande et al., 2010, Hsouna et al., 2010, Morozova et al., 2010, Sonnenfeld et al., 2010, Wang et al., 2010, Zhan et al., 2010, Guha et al., 2009, Jeon and Zinn, 2009, Mao and Freeman, 2009, Marco et al., 2009, Mortimer and Moberg, 2009, Wu et al., 2009, Centanin et al., 2008, Chang et al., 2008, Sato et al., 2008, Weaver and Krasnow, 2008, Yan and Lin, 2008, Araujo et al., 2007, Chanut-Delalande et al., 2007, Hsouna et al., 2007, Inoue and Hayashi, 2007, Mortimer and Moberg, 2007, Quinones-Coello, 2007, Sandmann et al., 2007, Stahl et al., 2007, Yan and Lin, 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Brodu and Casanova, 2006, Ghabrial and Krasnow, 2006, Jarvis et al., 2006, Jiang and Crews, 2006, Srahna et al., 2006, Cabernard and Affolter, 2005, Myat et al., 2005, Forni et al., 2004, Petit et al., 2004, Wolf et al., 2002, Pickeral et al., 2000)
          l(3)00208
          l(3)j2E11
          Name Synonyms
          Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1
          Fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor
          devenir
          fibrobast growth factor receptor
          fibroblast growth factor receptor
          lethal (3) j2E11
          no terminal cell clones-L
          Secondary FlyBase IDs
          • FBgn0005592
          • FBgn0000436
          • FBgn0000654
          • FBgn0004412
          • FBgn0004420
          • FBgn0004600
          • FBgn0019834
          • FBgn0022794
          • FBgn0052134
          • FBgn0063611
          • FBgn0011339
          Datasets (0)
          Study focus (0)
          Experimental Role
          Project
          Project Type
          Title
          References (421)