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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Imp
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
IGF-II mRNA-binding protein
Annotation Symbol
CG1691
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0285926
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
IGF-II mRNA-binding protein (Imp) encodes a protein that regulates the stability, translation and/or transport of its associated mRNAs, a large number of them encoding F-actin regulators. It is an essential protein required for neural and germline stem cell maturation, neuronal remodeling, as well as the expression modulation of asymmetrically localized maternal mRNAs. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

MRE11, dIMP, l(1)G0072, KH-domain protein, FGC026A04

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:10,787,869..10,824,277 [-]
Recombination map

1-33

RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:10787869..10824277
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Pathway (FlyBase)
Positive Regulators of JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of JAK-STAT signaling up-regulate the pathway, enhancing transcriptional control by Stat92E.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

zipcode-binding protein - regulator of RNA transport in oocytes and neurons - regulates aging of the Drosophila testis stem-cell niche - contributes to the localized expression of mRNA in the oocyte - counteracts endogenous small interfering RNAs to stabilize mRNAs

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
12
Number of Unique Polypeptides
5

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Imp or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Imp for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Stage-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during embryogenesis (FBrf0215804); all variants may not be annotated.

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

Gene model reviewed during 5.56

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0073420
3300
566
FBtr0073419
2863
566
FBtr0073418
6762
566
FBtr0073416
8752
573
FBtr0073417
3711
573
FBtr0073413
4481
573
FBtr0073415
5684
573
FBtr0073414
12045
573
FBtr0301409
3942
580
FBtr0305149
3468
631
FBtr0305150
4220
638
FBtr0346315
3824
638
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0073276
62.1
566
10.16
FBpp0073275
62.1
566
10.16
FBpp0073274
62.1
566
10.16
FBpp0073272
62.7
573
9.32
FBpp0073273
62.7
573
9.32
FBpp0073269
62.7
573
9.32
FBpp0073271
62.7
573
9.32
FBpp0073270
62.7
573
9.32
FBpp0290623
63.4
580
8.77
FBpp0293679
69.4
631
9.72
FBpp0293680
69.9
638
8.29
FBpp0312047
69.9
638
8.29
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

573 aa isoforms: Imp-PD, Imp-PE, Imp-PF, Imp-PG, Imp-PH
566 aa isoforms: Imp-PA, Imp-PB, Imp-PC
638 aa isoforms: Imp-PL, Imp-PM
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Imp using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (17 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (9 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | striped

Comment: 4 diffuse circumferential stripes that broaded with time

organism

Comment: extended 3' UTR isoform

Additional Descriptive Data

Imp transcripts are detected early and late in embryogenesis but transcripts containing the 3' UTR extension (~8.5 kb) are only detected at later stages and appear after the maternal-to-zygotic transition. The 3' UTR extension isoforms are highly enriched in nervous system tissues.

Imp expression at embryonic stages 1-4 is localized to the posterior pole of the embryo.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Immunolocalization shows that Imp is expressed in the -- and pole cells in blastoderm embryos and in the ventral nerve cord in stage 14-16 embryos. Double staining with an antibody to futsch reveals that Imp is expressed in peripheral sensory neurons and some futsch-negative cells surrounding them. Overlap with pros expression reveals Imp expression in the scolopale cells of chordotonal organs and in sheath cells of the external sensory organs. No staining was observed in peripheral motor axons or in muscle.

Imp protein is cytoplasmic and present in all cells of the oocyte, follicle cells, nurse cells, and the oocyte. Within the germline, the pattern changes with time. It is initially uniform in the dividing germ line cells of each cyst but becomes rapidly concentrated in the oocyte. By stage S7, the uniform levels in the oocyte are noticably reduced but by stage S8 and S9 Imp levels are elevated in a narrow zone between the nucleus and the anterior and dorsolateral margins of the oocyte (an area which coincides with the region where grk mRNA and protein accumulate). This localizaton is lost by mid-stage 9. Imp also localizes to a crescent at the posterior pole of the oocyte.

Imp protein is found in the oocyte and in nurse cells early in oogenesis but penetration of the antibody into the oocyte is blocked after stage S4.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{lacW}130
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PTT-un}G00080
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PTT-un}ImpG0171X
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PTT-un}ImpG0293X
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
adult brain cell body rind

Comment: adult brain cortex, only around central brain

Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
adult brain cell body rind | restricted

Comment: expression in part of the adult brain cortex surrounding the central brain

High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Imp in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 60 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 22 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Imp
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Imp
Deletions and Duplications ( 4 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
anterior fascicle & synapse, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (10)
13 of 13
Yes
Yes
11 of 13
No
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (8)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (14)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (18)
4 of 9
Yes
Yes
4 of 9
Yes
Yes
3 of 9
No
No
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091905NA )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915039K )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W05OP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X05KL )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G17T1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (4)
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
RNA-RNA
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Positive Regulators of JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of JAK-STAT signaling up-regulate the pathway, enhancing transcriptional control by Stat92E.
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map

1-33

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:10,787,869..10,824,277 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
9F1-9F4
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}sesBEP319&P{EP}ImpEP760 and P{EP}EP1321EP1321&P{EP}CG2061EP1537
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
9F1-9F4
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
9C3-9C4
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (27)
Genomic Clones (13)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (138)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: IGF-II CG1691

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: Imp l(1)G0072

    Source for merge of: Imp anon- EST:fe2B3

    Source for merge of: Imp MRE11

    Source for merge of: Imp FGC026A04

    Additional comments

    MRE11 is part of the 3' UTR of Imp.

    MRE11 corresponds to a portion of the 3' UTR of Imp.

    Source for merge of: Imp anon-WO0140519.39 Source for merge of Imp anon-WO0140519.39 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

    Source for identity of IGF-II CG1691 was sequence comparison ( date:000414 ).

    FGC026A04 corresponds to the 3' UTR of Imp; merged in FB2017_02.

    Other Comments

    Imp plays no essential role in the assembly or function of the pole plasm.

    Expression is enriched in embryonic gonads.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 112 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (23)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    IGF-II
    Imp
    (Dold et al., 2020, Fingerhut et al., 2019, Genovese et al., 2019, Herrera and Bach, 2019, Pahl et al., 2019, Sreejith et al., 2019, van den Ameele and Brand, 2019, Vijayakumar et al., 2019, Croset et al., 2018, Davie et al., 2018, Landskron et al., 2018, Li et al., 2018, Wang et al., 2018, Bonneaud et al., 2017, Doe, 2017, Hsu and Drummond-Barbosa, 2017, Sharma et al., 2017, Vallejos Baier et al., 2017, Yang et al., 2017, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Lee et al., 2016, Lu et al., 2016, Na et al., 2016, Narbonne-Reveau et al., 2016, Nielsen et al., 2016, Dorn and Dorn, 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Horan et al., 2015, Jambor et al., 2015, Khan et al., 2015, Kwong et al., 2015, Lin et al., 2015, Liu et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Lye et al., 2014, White-Grindley et al., 2014, de Celis et al., 2013.9.11, Hattori et al., 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Laver et al., 2013, Lim et al., 2012, Matunis et al., 2012, McDermott et al., 2012, Toledano et al., 2012, FlyBase Genome Annotators, 2011, Friedman et al., 2011, Shimada et al., 2011, Gan et al., 2010, Müller et al., 2010, Saja et al., 2010, Wasbrough et al., 2010, Wasbrough et al., 2010, Snee and Macdonald, 2009, Boylan et al., 2008, Clouse et al., 2008, Fabrizio et al., 2008, Mensch et al., 2008, Bilen and Bonini, 2007, Buszczak et al., 2007, Geng and MacDonald, 2007, Grieder et al., 2007, Koizumi et al., 2007, Lecuyer et al., 2007, Maia et al., 2007, Quinones-Coello, 2007, Quinones-Coello et al., 2007, Geng and Macdonald, 2006, Manak et al., 2006, Terry et al., 2006)
    anon-EST:fe2B3
    anon-WO0140519.39
    cg1691
    Name Synonyms
    IGF-II messenger RNA binding protein
    Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 mRNA Binding Protein 1
    anon-fast-evolving-2B3
    insulin-like growth factor II
    mRNA-like ncRNA in embryogenesis 11
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0262735
    • FBgn0030235
    • FBgn0025229
    • FBgn0026687
    • FBgn0044592
    • FBgn0086543
    • FBgn0086345
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (174)