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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\cnk
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
connector enhancer of ksr
Annotation Symbol
CG6556
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0286070
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Also Known As

semang, sag, EK2-3

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:17,413,970..17,420,007 [-]
Recombination map

2-82

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:17413970..17420007
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (23 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (14 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (14 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Ras85D; FB:FBgn0003205
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Ras85D; FB:FBgn0003205
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:sev; FB:FBgn0003366
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:sev; FB:FBgn0003366
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Pathway (FlyBase)
Sevenless Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The specification of the R7 photoreceptor cell in each ommatidium of the developing Drosophila eye is dependent on activation of Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase, which acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade to promote the expression of lz and pros. sev, expressed in presumptive R7 cells, is activated by binding to Bride of Sevenless (boss), a seven-transmembrane protein expressed in R8 cells. (Adapted from FBrf0127283 and FBrf0221727).
Torso Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The formation of Drosophila embryonic termini is controlled by the localized activation of Torso (tor) receptor tyrosine kinase. The Torso signaling pathway acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0157176.)
EGFR Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is used multiple times during development (FBrf0190321). It is activated by the binding of a secreted ligand to the receptor tyrosine kinase Egfr and acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0190321 and FBrf0221727).
FGFR Core Components -
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of secreted FGFs - bnl or ths/pyr to receptor tyrosine kinases btl or htl, respectively, to initiate signaling primarily via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0221038).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\cnk for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0086962
5397
1557
FBtr0340214
5816
1557
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

5.420 (longest cDNA)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0086117
171.4
1557
9.46
FBpp0309189
171.4
1557
9.46
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1557 aa isoforms: cnk-PA, cnk-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\cnk using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data

cnk protein localization was assayed with an epitope tagged version of cnk using the sev enhancer system. Pi3K68D protein localizes to the apical portion of sev-expressing cells where adherens junctions are found. In S2 cells it is found in the cytoplasm and also in the membrane at points of cell-cellcontact.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\cnk in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 43 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 29 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of cnk
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of cnk
Deletions and Duplications ( 5 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
mitotic cell cycle & eye disc
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (7)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (5)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (6)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900S7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500DK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00L6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00K3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 3 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Sevenless Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    The specification of the R7 photoreceptor cell in each ommatidium of the developing Drosophila eye is dependent on activation of Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase, which acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade to promote the expression of lz and pros. sev, expressed in presumptive R7 cells, is activated by binding to Bride of Sevenless (boss), a seven-transmembrane protein expressed in R8 cells. (Adapted from FBrf0127283 and FBrf0221727).
    Torso Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    The formation of Drosophila embryonic termini is controlled by the localized activation of Torso (tor) receptor tyrosine kinase. The Torso signaling pathway acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0157176.)
    EGFR Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is used multiple times during development (FBrf0190321). It is activated by the binding of a secreted ligand to the receptor tyrosine kinase Egfr and acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0190321 and FBrf0221727).
    FGFR Core Components -
    Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of secreted FGFs - bnl or ths/pyr to receptor tyrosine kinases btl or htl, respectively, to initiate signaling primarily via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0221038).
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map

    2-82

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:17,413,970..17,420,007 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    54A-54F
    Left limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0102064) Right limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0102064)
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    54B10-54B13
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    54A-54F
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    54B-54B
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Notes

    Mapped relative to the P{lacW} insertions in l(2)k07110k07110 and l(2)k14517k14517.

    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (14)
    Genomic Clones (19)
    cDNA Clones (27)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: cnk anon-WO0140519.129 anon-WO0257455.27

      Source for merge of: cnk sag

      Additional comments

      Source for merge of cnk anon-WO0140519.129 anon-WO0257455.27 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

      Other Comments

      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene.

      cnk acts as a molecular platform that coordinates the assembly and activity of a phl-activating complex. ksr, which is recruited to cnk-bound phl by the ave protein, is a central compenent of the phl activation process.

      dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene.

      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

      2 alleles of cnk been recovered in a screen for mutations with mutant phenotypes in clones in the wing.

      sag is required for R1/R6/R7 development in the eye.

      The N-terminal portion of the cnk protein strongly cooperates with Ras85D, whereas the C-terminal portion efficiently blocks Ras85D (Ras) and phl (Raf) signalling when overexpressed in the eye. Two domains in the N-terminal portion of cnk are critical for cooperation with Ras85D. cnk functions in more than one pathway downstream of Ras85D. The C-terminal portion of cnk regulates phl, a component of rl (MAPK) signalling while the N-terminal portion of cnk is involved in a rl-independent pathway.

      sag functions in several receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated processes.

      Identified via an extragenic revertant of the Src42A mutant phenotype.

      Gene isolated in a screen of the second chromosome identifying mutants affecting disc morphology.

      The cnk gene product functions in the Ras signalling pathway upstream or in parallel to phl in transducing signals elicited by receptor tyrosine kinases.

      Mutant retinas lack the normal complement of photoreceptor neurons and cone cells. sag mutation only affects those cells derived from the second mitotic wave during retinal development. BrdU staining revealed that the number of mitotic cells in the second mitotic wave is reduced, but not eliminated. The first mitotic wave appears normal in the mutant.

      Mosaic analysis showed that sag is specifically required for the development of R1, R6 and R7 cells. sag operates downstream of Ras85D and interacts with rl.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology

      The gene is named "semang" (meaning "colour blind" in Chinese) because mutations affect the development of a subset of photoreceptors in the eye.

      "semang" means "colour-blind" in Chinese.

      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 37 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (18)
      Reported As
      Name Synonyms
      Connector Enhancer of KSR
      Connector enhancer of KSR
      Connector enhancer of Ksr
      connector enhancer of KSR
      connector enhancer of Ksr
      enhancer of KDN
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0021818
      • FBgn0044753
      • FBgn0063794
      • FBgn0024192
      Datasets (1)
      Study focus (1)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      • bait_protein
      Interaction map generated by purification of receptor tyrosine kinase pathway factors, with identification of copurifying proteins by mass spectrometry.
      References (104)