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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\LKRSDH
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase
Annotation Symbol
CG7144
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0286198
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase (LKRSDH) encodes a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps in the lysine degradation pathway. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As

BEST:CK02318 , LKR, lys, lysine

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:7,791,175..7,795,959 [-]
Recombination map

2-28

RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:7791175..7795959
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (6 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000123605
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000123605
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR005097
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000123605
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
CH-NH OXIDOREDUCTASES, NAD OR NADP AS ACCEPTOR -
CH-NH oxidoreductases with NAD or NADP as acceptor, include dehydrogenases that oxidize a CH-NH with the reduction of NAD or NADP.
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
lys: lysine
Larvae, pupae, and adults contain a higher concentration of lysine than wild type. Accumulation of lysine is postulated to result from block in its degradation. Flies homozygous for lys occasionally have faintly reddish fat cells, especially in thorax. This effect enhanced by starvation, by combining lys with rc, rc2, or cho. RK3.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\LKRSDH for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.52

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0079495
3264
928
FBtr0343404
3495
928
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0079118
103.1
928
6.78
FBpp0310050
103.1
928
6.78
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

928 aa isoforms: LKRSDH-PA, LKRSDH-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\LKRSDH using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

The expression of this gene along with several others is induced in salivary glands in pupae at the time of head eversion. This stage is characterized by an increase in the ecdysone titer as well as large amounts of cell death in this tissue.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\LKRSDH in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 5 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of LKRSDH
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of LKRSDH
Deletions and Duplications ( 10 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
13 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
9 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091901K4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915016D )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W015V )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0141 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G03D7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    enhanceable
    enhanceable
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map

    2-28

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:7,791,175..7,795,959 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    28C4-28C4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP2419EP2419&P{EP}EP575 and P{PZ}l(2)rL220rL220
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location

    2-22.9

    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (11)
    Genomic Clones (27)
    cDNA Clones (38)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: LKR CG7144

      Source for identity of: LKRSDH LKR

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: BEST:CK02318 CG7144

      Source for merge of: CG7144 anon-WO0149856.1

      Source for merge of: LKRSDH lys

      Additional comments

      Renamed from 'LKR' to 'LKRSDH' to minimise confusion with the 'Lkr' ('Leucokinin receptor') gene symbol, from which it differed only by case. Moreover, 'LKRSDH' better reflects the symbol used in the original paper ('dLKR/SDH') which initially characterised the gene (FBrf0205793).

      Source for merge of CG7144 anon-WO0149856.1 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

      Other Comments

      LKR binds directly to EcR in vitro, regardless of whether ecdysone is present.

      LKR regulates hormone-mediated histone arginine methylation and transcription of cell death genes.

      Identification: cDNA screen for secreted and transmembrane proteins expressed during embryogenesis.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer

      E. H. Grell, 1957.

      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 25 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (16)
      Reported As
      Name Synonyms
      CG7144
      Drosophila lysine ketoglutarate reductase
      Drosophila lysine ketoglutarate reductase (dLKR)/saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH)
      Lysine Ketoglutarate Reductase/Saccharopine Dehydrogenase
      Lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase
      lysine ketoglutarate reductase
      saccharopine dehydogenase
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0025687
      • FBgn0031949
      • FBgn0045950
      • FBgn0002574
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (55)