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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\stw
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
straw
Annotation Symbol
CG42345
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0286203
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Ferroxidase (1.16.3.1)
Gene Snapshot
Insufficient genetic data for FlyBase to solicit a summary. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As

laccase2, laccase 2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:5,413,744..5,456,095 [+]
Recombination map

2-55

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:5413744..5456095
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
4 Fe(2+) + 4 H(+) + O(2) = 4 Fe(3+) + 2 H(2)O (1.16.3.1)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
MULTICOPPER OXIDASES -
Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are ubiquitous in nature and perform a wide variety of functions including pigmentation, lignin synthesis and degradation, iron homeostasis and morphogenesis. Most MCOs contain one copper ion in a type 1 site and three copper ions in a type 2/type 3 cluster. Different MCOs have been identified as laccases, ascorbate oxidases or ferroxidases. In D. melanogaster, stw (MCO2) encodes a laccase, whereas the products of Mco1 and Mco3 have been characterized as ferroxidases. (Adapted from FBrf0234915 and FBrf0222822.)
DIPHENOL OXIDOREDUCTASES, OXYGEN AS ACCEPTOR -
Diphenol oxidoreductases with oxygen as acceptor include dehydrogenases that oxidize diphenols and related substances with the reduction of oxygen molecule.
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
stw: straw
Hair color yellowish, especially on legs. Bristles pale at tips. Heterozygous deficiency for stw produces paling of body color. RK2.
stw2
Hairs pale yellow; bristles brownish with yellow tips. Wings pale yellow and somewhat thin and warped. Slightly more extreme than stw. Larval mouth parts straw colored at basal prongs and classifiable with difficulty in third-instar larvae (Brehme, 1941, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 27: 254-61). RK2.
stw3
Hairs, bristles, wings, and wing veins straw yellow. Body yellowish with pronounced dark trident. Tyrosinase formed in adult (Horowitz). Wings thin and buckled. Hairs on wing cells incompletely chitinized (Waddington, 1941, Proc. Zool. Soc., Ser. A 111: 173-80). Puparium noticeably lighter than wild type. Larval mouth parts straw colored at basal prongs; classifiable in living larva (Brehme, 1941, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 27: 254-61). RK2.
*stw4
Body pale yellow. Legs almost colorless. Wings colorless, thin, and fragile. Black areas of abdomen still black but heavily sprinkled with pale spots. Larval mouth parts normal (Brehme, 1941, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 27: 254-61). RK2.
stw5
Activation of the phenoloxidase at the time of melanization reduced in stw5 homozygotes compared to wild type (Mitchell, 1966, J. Insect. Physiol. 12: 755-65). Electroretinogram normal (Hotta and Benzer, 1969, Nature 222: 354-56). Semilethal or associated with a closely linked semilethal. RK2.
stw6
Like stw. Viability low. RK2.
*stw7
Bristles yellowish. Wing color pale, often overlaps wild type. Eclosion delayed. Poor viability. RK2.
*stwD: straw-Dominant
Body and bristles of homozygote light yellow; wings thin, buckled, and curled. In heterozygote, wings less abnormal; body and bristles wild type. stwD/stw3 like stw3. stwD/Df(2R)M41A has exaggerated stw phenotype. RK1.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
5

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\stw or the JBrowse view of Dmel\stw for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0299918
3561
784
FBtr0299920
2706
784
FBtr0299921
3645
784
FBtr0301063
2869
749
FBtr0335262
3645
784
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0289196
86.6
784
6.70
FBpp0289198
86.8
784
6.84
FBpp0289199
87.2
784
6.68
FBpp0290285
82.7
749
6.67
FBpp0307245
87.1
784
6.94
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\stw using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (8 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002355, InterPro:IPR011706, InterPro:IPR011707
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:Q9VLC3
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000194708
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000194708
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000194708
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001117, InterPro:IPR011706
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000194708
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\stw in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 21 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 4 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of stw
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of stw
Deletions and Duplications ( 42 )
Duplicated in
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (5)
3 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (10)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (5)
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (41)
9 of 9
Yes
Yes
8 of 9
No
Yes
8 of 9
No
Yes
6 of 9
No
No
6 of 9
No
No
6 of 9
No
No
6 of 9
No
No
6 of 9
No
No
6 of 9
No
No
6 of 9
No
No
6 of 9
No
No
6 of 9
No
No
6 of 9
No
No
5 of 9
No
No
5 of 9
No
No
5 of 9
No
No
5 of 9
No
No
5 of 9
No
No
5 of 9
No
No
5 of 9
No
No
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
9 of 15
Yes
No
9 of 15
Yes
No
5 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902O6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501LF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0222 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01ZM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0311 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (4)
6 of 10
6 of 10
6 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map

    2-55

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:5,413,744..5,456,095 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    h46-41A3
    Left limit from non-inclusion within Df(2R)M41A10 (FBrf0027524) Right limit from inclusion within Df(2R)M41A8 (FBrf0027524)
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (26)
    Genomic Clones (20)
    cDNA Clones (110)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: laccase2 CG42345

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: CG30437 CG32838

      Source for merge of: CG10398 CG10408

      Source for merge of: stw laccase2

      Additional comments

      Annotations CG30437 and CG32838 merged as CG42345 in release 5.9 of the genome annotation.

      Annotations CG10398 and CG10408 merged as CG30437 in release 3 of the genome annotation.

      Other Comments

      New annotation (CG32838) in release 3 of the genome annotation.

      Mutant alleles are useful as markers in clonal analysis.

      Haplo-insufficient; heterozygous deficiency for stw produces paling of body colour.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 46 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (90)