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General Information
Name
cancer, multiple, Hippo signaling pathway
FlyBase ID
FBhh0000764
Disease Ontology Term
Parent Disease
OMIM
Overview

Work in a number of systems and species supports the role of the Hippo signaling pathway in regulation of organ size and tissue homeostasis through its control of proliferation and apoptosis. Experiments in Drosophila identified the first known gene in this pathway, Warts (wts, a serine/threonine protein kinase, orthologous to human LATS2 and LATS1); clonal loss of wts in imaginal discs was shown to result in tissue overgrowth and dysregulated morphogenesis. Two additional genes with similar clonal overproliferation phenotypes were quickly identified: sav (regulator of hpo, orthologous to human SAV1) and hippo (hpo, pro-apoptotic kinase, orthologous to human STK3 and STK4). Genetic interactions between wts, hpo, and sav supported the hypothesis that these three genes are part of a common pathway. Adding to these original observations, a large body of work in multiple species supports the role of the Hippo signaling pathway as a tumor suppressor. However, in some systems, the activation of Hippo signaling appears to be associated with tumor progression.

Experiments in Drosophila have continued to contribute to understanding of the Hippo pathway, including identification of additional members of the pathway, and its role in development and progression of cancer. See the pathway report 'Hippo Signaling Pathway' (FBgg0000917) for a listing of genes encoding core components and regulators of this pathway in flies. Multiple experiments support the model that the Hippo pathway regulates cell invasion by activating JNK signaling. Since loss-of-function mutations of most of the genes involved are homozygous lethals, experimental design in this system frequently makes use of somatic clones or GAL4-UAS targeted expression.

In a model of cell invasion in the wing epithelium, overexpression of hpo or wts or knockdown of yki (transcriptional regulator, orthologous to human YAP1) results in overproliferation phenotypes and cells with molecular characteristics of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. This system has been used to assess the role of downstream genes in cancer progression via Hippo signaling, including that of the microRNAs bantam (mir-ban) and mir-8. Dmel\yki has been used in a model in combination with Dmel\l(2)gl, a Scribble complex gene (see FBhh0000590). Beyond imaginal discs, it has been demonstrated that loss of sav in Malpighian tubule stem cells results in overproliferation phenotypes and expansion of the stem cell population; loss-of-function clones of wts in the fly ovarian follicular epithelium results in tumor formation; over-expression of a phosphorylation-resistant form of yki in the ovary results in overproliferation and loss of epithelial architecture. Many physical and genetic interactions have been described for these Drosophila genes (including with each other); see below and in the relevant gene reports.

A number of the human genes associated with the human Hippo signaling pathway have been introduced into flies: Hsap\LATS2, Hsap\LATS1, Hsap\STK3, Hsap\STK4, Hsap\YAP1. LATS1 and YAP1 have been associated with specific cancers in GWAS studies (see GWAS Catalog, below in 'External links'). Variants of LATS1 and LATS2 predicted to result in loss of function have been characterized in flies for capacity to regulate growth in the larval wing epithelium. Heterologous rescue (functional complementation) of the hpo clonal overgrowth phenotype by Hsap\STK3 is observed. Partial functional complementation of Hsap\YAP1 for Dmel\yki has been observed: overexpression of hpo in the developing eye results in pupal lethality; co-expression of yki rescues the lethal phenotype, co-expression of Hsap\YAP1 partially rescues the lethal phenotype (FBrf0187228).

[updated Jun. 2019 by FlyBase; FBrf0222196]

Disease Summary Information
Disease Summary: cancer, multiple, Hippo signaling pathway
OMIM report
Human gene(s) implicated
Symptoms and phenotype

Hippo pathway activity seems to be frequently deregulated in different human cancers but most Hippo pathway genes are not commonly mutated. [reviewed in FBrf0221544]

Work in a number of systems supports the role of the Hippo signaling pathway in regulation of organ size and shape through its control of proliferation and apoptosis. A large body of work in multiple systems supports the role of the Hippo signaling pathway as a tumor suppressor. However, other work has implicated the activation of Hippo signaling in tumor progression. [reviewed in FBrf0237433]

Genetics

LATS1 and YAP1 are associated with specific cancers in GWAS studies (see GWAS Catalog, below in 'External links').

Cellular phenotype and pathology
Molecular information

STK3 and STK4 encode stress-activated, pro-apoptotic kinases; function as growth suppressors. Act in the Hippo signaling pathway as components of a complex that phosphorylates and activates LATS1/2. [Gene Cards, STK3, STK4; 2018.03.14]

LATS1 and LATS2 encode serine/threonine protein kinases belonging to the LATS tumor suppressor family; negatively regulate G2/M transition; negative regulators of YAP1 in the Hippo signaling pathway. [Gene Cards, LATS1, LATS2; 2018.03.14]

YAP1 is a transcriptional regulator which can act both as a coactivator and a corepressor; a downstream nuclear effector of the Hippo signaling pathway. [Gene Cards, YAP1; 2018.03.14]

External links
Disease synonyms
Search term: hyperplastic phenotype(s)
Search term: Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway
Search term: SWH pathway
cancer, multiple, Hippo signaling
Ortholog Information
Human gene(s) in FlyBase
Other mammalian ortholog(s) used
    D. melanogaster Gene Information (6)
    Gene Snapshot
    warts (wts) encodes a tumor suppressor kinase in the Hippo pathway involved in the control of tissue growth. It also plays a post-mitotic role in R8 photoreceptor cells where it antagonizes the product of melt to control the bistable choice of Rhodospin expression. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
    Gene Groups / Pathways
    Comments on ortholog(s)

    Moderate-scoring ortholog of human LATS1 and LATS2 (1 Drosophila to 2 human); Dmel\wts shares 38-42% identity and 47-50% similarity with the human genes.

    Orthologs and Alignments from DRSC
    DIOPT - DRSC Integrative Ortholog Prediction Tool - Click the link below to search for orthologs in Humans
    Gene Snapshot
    hippo (hpo) encodes a kinase in the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway. It controls tissue growth by controlling cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis. It has several roles in post-mitotic cells including fate specification of photoreceptors and tiling of dendritic neurons. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
    Gene Groups / Pathways
    Comments on ortholog(s)

    Moderate-scoring ortholog of human STK3 and STK4 (1 Drosophila to 2 human); Dmel\hpo shares 58% identity and 69% similarity with STK3; it shares 45% identity and 56% similarity with STK4.

    Orthologs and Alignments from DRSC
    DIOPT - DRSC Integrative Ortholog Prediction Tool - Click the link below to search for orthologs in Humans
    Gene Snapshot
    yorkie (yki) encodes a transcriptional co-activator protein that is negatively regulated by Hippo signaling, which promotes its cytoplasmic localization. It functions together with DNA binding proteins, such as the product of sd, to activate transcription of a wide range of downstream targets, including genes that promote growth. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
    Gene Groups / Pathways
    Comments on ortholog(s)

    Moderate-scoring ortholog of human YAP1 (1 Drosophila to 2 human); Dmel\yki shares 31% identity and 45% similarity with the human gene.

    Orthologs and Alignments from DRSC
    DIOPT - DRSC Integrative Ortholog Prediction Tool - Click the link below to search for orthologs in Humans
    Gene Snapshot
    salvador (sav) encodes a scaffold protein involved in the Hippo signalling pathway. It promotes membrane recruitment of the kinase encoded by hpo and its assembly with the product of wts. [Date last reviewed: 2018-11-15]
    Gene Groups / Pathways
    Comments on ortholog(s)

    Moderate-scoring ortholog of human SAV1 (1 Drosophila to 1 human). Dmel\sav shares 26% identity and 37% similarity with the human gene.

    Orthologs and Alignments from DRSC
    DIOPT - DRSC Integrative Ortholog Prediction Tool - Click the link below to search for orthologs in Humans
    Cellular component (GO)
      Gene Groups / Pathways
      Comments on ortholog(s)

      5' seed sequence homologous to that of human MIR450B-3p (FBrf0242402).

      Orthologs and Alignments from DRSC
      DIOPT - DRSC Integrative Ortholog Prediction Tool - Click the link below to search for orthologs in Humans
      Cellular component (GO)
        Gene Groups / Pathways
        Comments on ortholog(s)

        Orthologous to human MIR429, MIR200B, MIR200C and others (FBrf0242402).

        Orthologs and Alignments from DRSC
        DIOPT - DRSC Integrative Ortholog Prediction Tool - Click the link below to search for orthologs in Humans
        Synthetic Gene(s) Used (0)
        Summary of Physical Interactions (232 groups)
        protein-protein
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        enzymatic study, western blot
        proximity ligation assay, fluorescence microscopy
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, enzymatic study, western blot, autoradiography
        enzymatic study, western blot
        coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot
        proximity ligation assay, fluorescence microscopy, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting, enzymatic study, western blot, pull down
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, enzymatic study, peptide massfingerprinting, autoradiography
        enzymatic study, western blot, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, proximity ligation assay, fluorescence microscopy
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        pull down, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, anti tag western blot, pull down, peptide massfingerprinting, enzymatic study, two hybrid, autoradiography
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        protein-protein
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        fluorescent resonance energy transfer, enzymatic study, autoradiography, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, anti tag western blot, pull down, protein complementation assay, two hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, mass spectrometry studies of complexes, molecular weight estimation by staining
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting, western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        enzymatic study, autoradiography
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        two hybrid, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot
        enzymatic study, autoradiography, pull down, western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        pull down, anti tag western blot, enzymatic study, western blot
        mass spectrometry studies of complexes, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, peptide massfingerprinting, pull down, molecular weight estimation by staining
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
        two hybrid, anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, pull down, molecular weight estimation by staining, anti tag western blot, autoradiography, coimmunoprecipitation, enzymatic study, x-ray crystallography, protein cross-linking with a bifunctional reagent, molecular weight, tandem affinity purification, molecular sieving, mass spectrometry studies of complexes
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, pull down, western blot, experimental knowledge based
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
        protein kinase assay, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, enzymatic study, autoradiography, western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, enzymatic study, western blot, autoradiography
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
        RNA-RNA
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        fluorescence technology
        protein-protein
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        protein complementation assay, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, western blot, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting, pull down, western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot
        enzymatic study, western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, tag visualisation
        coimmunoprecipitation, western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, pull down, peptide massfingerprinting, Identification by mass spectrometry
        pull down, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, enzymatic study, autoradiography
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        pull down, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting, pull down, tandem affinity purification, Identification by mass spectrometry
        anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, western blot, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, pull down
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, pull down, western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting, experimental knowledge based
        anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        pull down, peptide massfingerprinting
        enzymatic study, autoradiography
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        experimental knowledge based
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, pull down, autoradiography, two hybrid, fluorescent resonance energy transfer, anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        pull down, Identification by mass spectrometry, anti tag western blot, molecular sieving, molecular weight, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, nuclear magnetic resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry, predetermined participant, peptide massfingerprinting, two hybrid
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, peptide massfingerprinting, pull down
        pull down, western blot
        proximity ligation assay, fluorescence microscopy, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot
        pull down, western blot, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, pull down, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, anti tag western blot, pull down, peptide massfingerprinting, enzymatic study, two hybrid, autoradiography
        protein-protein
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        pull down, molecular weight estimation by staining, fluorescent resonance energy transfer, fluorescence microscopy, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, mass spectrometry studies of complexes
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, fluorescent resonance energy transfer, fluorescence microscopy
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        two hybrid, anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, pull down, molecular weight estimation by staining, anti tag western blot, autoradiography, coimmunoprecipitation, enzymatic study, x-ray crystallography, protein cross-linking with a bifunctional reagent, molecular weight, tandem affinity purification, molecular sieving, mass spectrometry studies of complexes
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        two hybrid, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, western blot, coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, anti tag western blot, two hybrid
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        pull down, molecular weight estimation by staining
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
        pull down, anti tag western blot
        RNA-protein
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot, filter binding, autoradiography
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot, enzymatic study, autoradiography, electrophoretic mobility shift assay
        enzymatic study, northern blot
        anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, quantitative reverse transcription pcr
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot, anti bait coimmunoprecipitation
        anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot, fluorescence polarization spectroscopy, predetermined participant, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation
        enzymatic study, northern blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
        anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, primer specific pcr
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
        RNA-RNA
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
        luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
        luminiscence technology, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence technology, necessary binding region
        luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
        immunohistochemistry, luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
        luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
        western blot, immunohistochemistry, luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
        fluorescence technology
        RNA-protein
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
        enzymatic study, autoradiography
        anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, quantitative reverse transcription pcr
        fluorescence polarization spectroscopy, predetermined participant
        anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, primer specific pcr
        anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, primer specific pcr
        RNA-RNA
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        quantitative reverse transcription pcr
        quantitative reverse transcription pcr
        luminiscence technology, quantitative reverse transcription pcr
        luminiscence technology
        luminiscence technology
        quantitative reverse transcription pcr
        quantitative reverse transcription pcr
        luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
        quantitative reverse transcription pcr
        luminiscence technology
        luminiscence technology, quantitative reverse transcription pcr
        fluorescence technology, necessary binding region, immunohistochemistry
        quantitative reverse transcription pcr, luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
        quantitative reverse transcription pcr
        quantitative reverse transcription pcr
        quantitative reverse transcription pcr
        quantitative reverse transcription pcr
        quantitative reverse transcription pcr
        quantitative reverse transcription pcr
        luminiscence technology
        fluorescence technology
        fluorescence technology, necessary binding region, luminiscence technology, immunohistochemistry
        quantitative reverse transcription pcr, fluorescence technology, luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
        quantitative reverse transcription pcr, luminiscence technology
        luminiscence technology, quantitative reverse transcription pcr, western blot
        western blot, quantitative reverse transcription pcr, luminiscence technology
        western blot, quantitative reverse transcription pcr, luminiscence technology
        quantitative reverse transcription pcr, luminiscence technology
        luminiscence technology, quantitative reverse transcription pcr
        luminiscence technology
        luminiscence technology
        immunohistochemistry, luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
        fluorescence technology
        Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology) (39 alleles)
        Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 6 )
        Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 4 )
        Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Evidence
        References
        Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 3 )
        Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 6 )
        Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 9 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Interaction
        References
        Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
        Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Interaction
        References
        Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
        Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Interaction
        References
        Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Evidence
        References
        Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Interaction
        References
        Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Evidence
        References
        Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Interaction
        References
        Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Evidence
        References
        Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 5 )
        Genetic Tools, Stocks and Reagents
        Sources of Stocks
        Contact lab of origin for a reagent not available from a public stock center.
        Bloomington Stock Center Disease Page
        Selected mammalian transgenes
        Allele
        Transgene
        Publicly Available Stocks
        Selected Drosophila transgenes
        Allele
        Transgene
        Publicly Available Stocks
        RNAi constructs available
        Allele
        Transgene
        Publicly Available Stocks
        Selected Drosophila classical alleles
        Allele
        Allele class
        Mutagen
        Publicly Available Stocks
        loss of function allele
        CRISPR/Cas9
        loss of function allele
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        Delta2-3 transposase
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        amorphic allele - genetic evidence
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        X ray
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        ethyl methanesulfonate
        loss of function allele
        amorphic allele - molecular evidence
        Delta2-3 transposase
        amorphic allele - molecular evidence
        FLPase
        P-element activity
        P-element activity
        Delta2-3 transposase
        amorphic allele - genetic evidence
        Delta2-3 transposase
        References (83)