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General Information
Name
cancer, multiple, Hippo signaling pathway
FlyBase ID
FBhh0000764
Disease Ontology Term
Parent Disease
OMIM
Overview

Work in a number of systems and species supports the role of the Hippo signaling pathway in regulation of organ size and tissue homeostasis through its control of proliferation and apoptosis. Experiments in Drosophila identified the first known gene in this pathway, Warts (wts, a serine/threonine protein kinase, orthologous to human LATS2 and LATS1); clonal loss of wts in imaginal discs was shown to result in tissue overgrowth and dysregulated morphogenesis. Two additional genes with similar clonal overproliferation phenotypes were quickly identified: sav (regulator of hpo, orthologous to human SAV1) and hippo (hpo, pro-apoptotic kinase, orthologous to human STK3 and STK4). Genetic interactions between wts, hpo, and sav supported the hypothesis that these three genes are part of a common pathway. Adding to these original observations, a large body of work in multiple species supports the role of the Hippo signaling pathway as a tumor suppressor. However, in some systems, the activation of Hippo signaling appears to be associated with tumor progression.

Experiments in Drosophila have continued to contribute to understanding of the Hippo pathway, including identification of additional members of the pathway, and its role in development and progression of cancer. See the pathway report 'Hippo Signaling Pathway' (FBgg0000917) for a listing of genes encoding core components and regulators of this pathway in flies. Multiple experiments support the model that the Hippo pathway regulates cell invasion by activating JNK signaling. Since loss-of-function mutations of most of the genes involved are homozygous lethals, experimental design in this system frequently makes use of somatic clones or GAL4-UAS targeted expression.

In a model of cell invasion in the wing epithelium, overexpression of hpo or wts or knockdown of yki (transcriptional regulator, orthologous to human YAP1) results in overproliferation phenotypes and cells with molecular characteristics of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. This system has been used to assess the role of downstream genes in cancer progression via Hippo signaling, including that of the microRNAs bantam (mir-ban) and mir-8. Dmel\yki has been used in a model in combination with Dmel\l(2)gl, a Scribble complex gene (see FBhh0000590). Beyond imaginal discs, it has been demonstrated that loss of sav in Malpighian tubule stem cells results in overproliferation phenotypes and expansion of the stem cell population; loss-of-function clones of wts in the fly ovarian follicular epithelium results in tumor formation; over-expression of a phosphorylation-resistant form of yki in the ovary results in overproliferation and loss of epithelial architecture. Many physical and genetic interactions have been described for these Drosophila genes (including with each other); see below and in the relevant gene reports.

A number of the human genes associated with the human Hippo signaling pathway have been introduced into flies: Hsap\LATS2, Hsap\LATS1, Hsap\STK3, Hsap\STK4, Hsap\YAP1. LATS1 and YAP1 have been associated with specific cancers in GWAS studies (see GWAS Catalog, below in 'External links'). Variants of LATS1 and LATS2 predicted to result in loss of function have been characterized in flies for capacity to regulate growth in the larval wing epithelium. Heterologous rescue (functional complementation) of the hpo clonal overgrowth phenotype by Hsap\STK3 is observed. Partial functional complementation of Hsap\YAP1 for Dmel\yki has been observed: overexpression of hpo in the developing eye results in pupal lethality; co-expression of yki rescues the lethal phenotype, co-expression of Hsap\YAP1 partially rescues the lethal phenotype (FBrf0187228).

[updated Jun. 2019 by FlyBase; FBrf0222196]

Disease Summary Information
Disease Summary: cancer, multiple, Hippo signaling pathway
OMIM report
Human gene(s) implicated
Symptoms and phenotype
Hippo pathway activity seems to be frequently deregulated in different human cancers but most Hippo pathway genes are not commonly mutated. [reviewed in FBrf0221544]
Work in a number of systems supports the role of the Hippo signaling pathway in regulation of organ size and shape through its control of proliferation and apoptosis. A large body of work in multiple systems supports the role of the Hippo signaling pathway as a tumor suppressor. However, other work has implicated the activation of Hippo signaling in tumor progression. [reviewed in FBrf0237433]
Genetics
LATS1 and YAP1 are associated with specific cancers in GWAS studies (see GWAS Catalog, below in 'External links').
Cellular phenotype and pathology
Molecular information
STK3 and STK4 encode stress-activated, pro-apoptotic kinases; function as growth suppressors. Act in the Hippo signaling pathway as components of a complex that phosphorylates and activates LATS1/2. [Gene Cards, STK3, STK4; 2018.03.14]
LATS1 and LATS2 encode serine/threonine protein kinases belonging to the LATS tumor suppressor family; negatively regulate G2/M transition; negative regulators of YAP1 in the Hippo signaling pathway. [Gene Cards, LATS1, LATS2; 2018.03.14]
YAP1 is a transcriptional regulator which can act both as a coactivator and a corepressor; a downstream nuclear effector of the Hippo signaling pathway. [Gene Cards, YAP1; 2018.03.14]
External links
Disease synonyms
Search term: hyperplastic phenotype(s)
Search term: Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway
Search term: SWH pathway
cancer, multiple, Hippo signaling
Ortholog Information
Human gene(s) in FlyBase
Other mammalian ortholog(s) used
    D. melanogaster Gene Information (6)
    Gene Snapshot
    warts (wts) encodes a tumor suppressor kinase in the Hippo pathway involved in the control of tissue growth. It also plays a post-mitotic role in R8 photoreceptor cells where it antagonizes the product of melt to control the bistable choice of Rhodospin expression. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
    Gene Groups / Pathways
    Comments on ortholog(s)
    Moderate-scoring ortholog of human LATS1 and LATS2 (1 Drosophila to 2 human); Dmel\wts shares 38-42% identity and 47-50% similarity with the human genes.
    Orthologs and Alignments from DRSC
    DIOPT - DRSC Integrative Ortholog Prediction Tool - Click the link below to search for orthologs in Humans
    Gene Snapshot
    hippo (hpo) encodes a kinase in the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway. It controls tissue growth by controlling cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis. It has several roles in post-mitotic cells including fate specification of photoreceptors and tiling of dendritic neurons. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
    Gene Groups / Pathways
    Comments on ortholog(s)
    Moderate-scoring ortholog of human STK3 and STK4 (1 Drosophila to 2 human); Dmel\hpo shares 58% identity and 69% similarity with STK3; it shares 45% identity and 56% similarity with STK4.
    Orthologs and Alignments from DRSC
    DIOPT - DRSC Integrative Ortholog Prediction Tool - Click the link below to search for orthologs in Humans
    Gene Snapshot
    yorkie (yki) encodes a transcriptional co-activator protein that is negatively regulated by Hippo signaling, which promotes its cytoplasmic localization. It functions together with DNA binding proteins, such as the product of sd, to activate transcription of a wide range of downstream targets, including genes that promote growth. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
    Gene Groups / Pathways
    Comments on ortholog(s)
    Moderate-scoring ortholog of human YAP1 (1 Drosophila to 2 human); Dmel\yki shares 31% identity and 45% similarity with the human gene.
    Orthologs and Alignments from DRSC
    DIOPT - DRSC Integrative Ortholog Prediction Tool - Click the link below to search for orthologs in Humans
    Gene Snapshot
    salvador (sav) encodes a scaffold protein involved in the Hippo signalling pathway. It promotes membrane recruitment of the kinase encoded by hpo and its assembly with the product of wts. [Date last reviewed: 2018-11-15]
    Gene Groups / Pathways
    Comments on ortholog(s)
    Moderate-scoring ortholog of human SAV1 (1 Drosophila to 1 human). Dmel\sav shares 26% identity and 37% similarity with the human gene.
    Orthologs and Alignments from DRSC
    DIOPT - DRSC Integrative Ortholog Prediction Tool - Click the link below to search for orthologs in Humans
    Gene Snapshot
    In progress.Contributions welcome.
    Molecular function (GO)
    Cellular component (GO)
      Gene Groups / Pathways
      Comments on ortholog(s)
      5' seed sequence homologous to that of human MIR450B-3p (FBrf0242402).
      Orthologs and Alignments from DRSC
      DIOPT - DRSC Integrative Ortholog Prediction Tool - Click the link below to search for orthologs in Humans
      Gene Snapshot
      In progress.Contributions welcome.
      Molecular function (GO)
        Cellular component (GO)
          Gene Groups / Pathways
          Comments on ortholog(s)
          Orthologous to human MIR429, MIR200B, MIR200C and others (FBrf0242402).
          Orthologs and Alignments from DRSC
          DIOPT - DRSC Integrative Ortholog Prediction Tool - Click the link below to search for orthologs in Humans
          Synthetic Gene(s) Used (0)
          Summary of Physical Interactions (218 groups)
          protein-protein
          Interacting group
          Assay
          References
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          enzymatic study, western blot
          proximity ligation assay, fluorescence microscopy
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, enzymatic study, western blot, autoradiography
          enzymatic study, western blot
          coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, proximity ligation assay, fluorescence microscopy
          pull down, anti tag western blot, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, enzymatic study, western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, enzymatic study, autoradiography, peptide massfingerprinting
          enzymatic study, western blot, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, proximity ligation assay, fluorescence microscopy
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          pull down, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          enzymatic study, western blot, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, autoradiography, two hybrid, peptide massfingerprinting, pull down
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          protein-protein
          Interacting group
          Assay
          References
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, two hybrid, western blot, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, enzymatic study, autoradiography, pull down, fluorescent resonance energy transfer, protein complementation assay
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot, western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          enzymatic study, autoradiography
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          two hybrid, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot
          enzymatic study, autoradiography, pull down, western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          enzymatic study, western blot, pull down, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot, anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, autoradiography, pull down, molecular weight estimation by staining, anti tag western blot, two hybrid, peptide massfingerprinting, enzymatic study, x-ray crystallography, anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, coimmunoprecipitation, protein cross-linking with a bifunctional reagent, molecular weight, tandem affinity purification, molecular sieving
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          pull down, western blot, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, experimental knowledge based
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
          protein kinase assay, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, anti tag western blot, enzymatic study, autoradiography
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, enzymatic study, western blot, autoradiography
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
          RNA-RNA
          Interacting group
          Assay
          References
          fluorescence technology
          protein-protein
          Interacting group
          Assay
          References
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting, protein complementation assay
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting, western blot, pull down
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
          enzymatic study, autoradiography
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, tag visualisation
          coimmunoprecipitation, western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot, Identification by mass spectrometry, anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, pull down
          pull down, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          enzymatic study, autoradiography, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          pull down, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          tandem affinity purification, Identification by mass spectrometry, pull down, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          pull down, anti tag western blot, anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, pull down, western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, experimental knowledge based, anti tag western blot
          anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          pull down, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          experimental knowledge based
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, two hybrid, pull down, autoradiography, anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting, western blot, fluorescent resonance energy transfer
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          pull down, anti tag western blot, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, nuclear magnetic resonance, two hybrid, peptide massfingerprinting, molecular sieving, molecular weight, isothermal titration calorimetry, predetermined participant
          anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, pull down, anti tag western blot, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation
          pull down, western blot
          proximity ligation assay, fluorescence microscopy, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, pull down, western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          pull down, peptide massfingerprinting, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          enzymatic study, western blot, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, autoradiography, two hybrid, peptide massfingerprinting, pull down
          protein-protein
          Interacting group
          Assay
          References
          fluorescent resonance energy transfer, fluorescence microscopy
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          fluorescent resonance energy transfer, fluorescence microscopy, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, autoradiography, pull down, molecular weight estimation by staining, anti tag western blot, two hybrid, peptide massfingerprinting, enzymatic study, x-ray crystallography, anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, coimmunoprecipitation, protein cross-linking with a bifunctional reagent, molecular weight, tandem affinity purification, molecular sieving
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, anti tag western blot, two hybrid
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, anti tag western blot, coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, two hybrid, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, peptide massfingerprinting
          pull down, anti tag western blot
          RNA-protein
          Interacting group
          Assay
          References
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot, filter binding, autoradiography
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
          electrophoretic mobility shift assay, autoradiography, enzymatic study, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
          enzymatic study, northern blot
          anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot, quantitative reverse transcription pcr, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot, anti bait coimmunoprecipitation
          fluorescence polarization spectroscopy, predetermined participant, anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot, anti bait coimmunoprecipitation
          enzymatic study, northern blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
          anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, primer specific pcr
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
          RNA-RNA
          Interacting group
          Assay
          References
          luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
          luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
          luminiscence technology, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence technology, necessary binding region
          luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
          immunohistochemistry, luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
          luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
          western blot, luminiscence technology, necessary binding region, immunohistochemistry
          fluorescence technology
          RNA-protein
          Interacting group
          Assay
          References
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, northern blot
          enzymatic study, autoradiography
          anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, quantitative reverse transcription pcr
          fluorescence polarization spectroscopy, predetermined participant
          anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, primer specific pcr
          anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, primer specific pcr
          RNA-RNA
          Interacting group
          Assay
          References
          quantitative reverse transcription pcr
          quantitative reverse transcription pcr
          luminiscence technology
          luminiscence technology
          quantitative reverse transcription pcr
          quantitative reverse transcription pcr
          luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
          quantitative reverse transcription pcr
          luminiscence technology
          luminiscence technology, quantitative reverse transcription pcr
          fluorescence technology, necessary binding region, immunohistochemistry
          quantitative reverse transcription pcr, luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
          quantitative reverse transcription pcr
          quantitative reverse transcription pcr
          quantitative reverse transcription pcr
          quantitative reverse transcription pcr
          quantitative reverse transcription pcr
          quantitative reverse transcription pcr
          luminiscence technology
          fluorescence technology
          immunohistochemistry, fluorescence technology, necessary binding region, luminiscence technology
          quantitative reverse transcription pcr, fluorescence technology, luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
          luminiscence technology, quantitative reverse transcription pcr
          quantitative reverse transcription pcr, luminiscence technology, western blot
          luminiscence technology
          luminiscence technology
          immunohistochemistry, luminiscence technology, necessary binding region
          fluorescence technology
          Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology) (28 alleles)
          Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 3 )
          Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Interaction
          References
          Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Evidence
          References
          Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Interaction
          References
          Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 5 )
          Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 5 )
          Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
          Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Interaction
          References
          Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
          Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Interaction
          References
          Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Evidence
          References
          Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Interaction
          References
          Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Evidence
          References
          Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Interaction
          References
          Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Evidence
          References
          Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 5 )
          Genetic Tools, Stocks and Reagents
          Sources of Stocks
          Contact lab of origin for a reagent not available from a public stock center.
          Bloomington Stock Center Disease Page
          Selected mammalian transgenes
          Allele
          Transgene
          Publicly Available Stocks
          Selected Drosophila transgenes
          Allele
          Transgene
          Publicly Available Stocks
          RNAi constructs available
          Allele
          Transgene
          Publicly Available Stocks
          Selected Drosophila classical alleles
          Allele
          Allele class
          Mutagen
          Publicly Available Stocks
          loss of function allele
          CRISPR/Cas9
          loss of function allele
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          amorphic allele - genetic evidence
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          X ray
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          ethyl methanesulfonate
          loss of function allele
          amorphic allele - molecular evidence
          Delta2-3 transposase
          amorphic allele - molecular evidence
          FLPase
          P-element activity
          P-element activity
          Delta2-3 transposase
          amorphic allele - genetic evidence
          Delta2-3 transposase
          References (67)