We have used a behavioral genetic approach to identify six X-linked loci which specify olfaction in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutations in five of these genes lead to partial anosmias affecting responses either to aldehydes (olfA, olfB, olfE and olfF) or to acetate esters (olfC). Only one of the mutants obtained in our screening (olfD) resulted in a insensitivity to several different odorants. olfA, olfE and olfC map close together in a small region of the chromosome between 7C and 7D. The alleles at the olfC locus fall into two phenotypic classes according to their responses to different acetate esters. The two groups of olfC alleles interact in-trans.