We have produced monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against an antigen that is asymmetrically distributed in mature oocytes of Drosophila melanogaster. During late oogenesis and early embryogenesis the antigen undergoes dramatic changes in its cellular localization: until about 2.5 h before completion of oogenesis it is homogeneously distributed in the cytoplasm, then it becomes localized in granules that are more numerous in posterior than in anterior peripheral positions of the ooplasm. The germ plasm is void of the antigen. Shortly after egg deposition the antigen is released from the granules and forms a shallow temporary gradient in the egg. Later during embryogenesis the antigen is associated with the yolk-containing cytoplasm. At the syncytial blastoderm stage it is also detected in the peripheral nuclei. Preliminary evidence suggests that the antigen is an ecdysteroid-related molecule. Five different anti-ecdysone antisera were found to bind to the same antigen or to an antigen with the same localization as our monoclonal antibody. In pattern mutants affecting anteroposterior polarity, the described asymmetrical distribution of the antigen is abnormal. In the mutant BicD, for example, which leads to the formation of two abdomina of opposite polarity, the antigen-containing granules are distributed homogeneously in mature oocytes.