Resistance to the cyclodiene insecticide dieldrin maps to a single gene (Rdl) on the left arm of chromosome III in Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen). The gene was further mapped by the use of chromosomal deficiencies to a single letter sub-region, 66F, on the polytene chromosome. The cross-resistance spectrum of a backcrossed strain lacking elevated mixed function oxidase activity, a common resistance mechanism, was examined. Levels of resistance similar to those found in other insects were found to dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, lindane, and picrotoxinin. Strong similarity of this single major gene with that found in other cyclodiene resistant insects is suggested by its cross-resistance spectrum and chromosomal location, via homology with other Diptera. The significance of major genes in insecticide resistance is discussed.