To study the genetic differentiation and inversion clines in Indian natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, 14 natural populations (6 from the north and 8 from the south) were screened for chromosome inversions. The chromosomal analysis revealed the presence of 23 paracentric inversions, which include 4 common cosmopolitan, 4 rare cosmopolitan, 2 recurrent endemic, and 13 unique endemic (new inversions detected for the first time) inversions. The difference in karyotype frequencies between populations from the north and south were highly significant and the level of inversion heterozygosity was higher in populations from the south. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between each of the four common cosmopolitan inversions and latitude. These findings are in accord with results from other worldwide geographic regions and show that Indian populations of D. melanogaster have undergone considerable genetic differentiation at the level of inversion polymorphism.