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Fogarty, P., Kalpin, R.F., Sullivan, W. (1994). The Drosophila maternal-effect mutation grapes causes a metaphase arrest at nuclear cycle 13.  Development 120(8): 2131--2142.
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grapes (grp) is a second chromosome (36A-B) maternal-effect lethal mutation in Drosophila melanogaster. We demonstrate that the syncytial nuclear divisions of grp-derived embryos are normal through metaphase of nuclear cycle 12. However, as the embryos progress into telophase of cycle 12, the microtubule structures rapidly deteriorate and midbodies never form. Immediately following the failure of midbody formation, sister telophase products collide and form large tetraploid nuclei. These observations suggest that the function of the midbody in the syncytial embryo is to maintain separation of sister nuclei during telophase of the cortical divisions. After an abbreviated nuclear cycle 13 interphase, these polyploid nuclei progress through prophase and arrest in metaphase. The spindles associated with the arrested nuclei are stable for hours even though the microtubules are rapidly turning over. The nuclear cycle 13 anaphase separation of sister chromatids never occurs and the chromosomes, still encompassed by spindles, assume a telophase conformation. Eventually neighboring arrested spindles begin to associate and form large clusters of spindles and nuclei. To determine whether this arrest was the result of a disruption in normal developmental events that occur at this time, both grp-derived and wild-type embryos were exposed to X-irradiation. Syncytial wild-type embryos exhibit a high division error rate, but not a nuclear-cycle arrest after exposure to low doses of X-irradiation. In contrast, grp-derived embryos exhibit a metaphase arrest in response to equivalent doses of X-irradiation. This arrest can be induced even in the early syncytial divisions prior to nuclear migration. These results suggest that the nuclear cycle 13 metaphase arrest of unexposed grp-derived embryos is independent of the division-cycle transitions that also occur at this stage. Instead, it may be the result of a previously unidentified feedback mechanism.

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