Females of Drosophila melanogaster and its sibling species D. simulans have very different cuticular hydrocarbons, with the former bearing predominantly 7,11-heptacosadiene and the latter 7-tricosene. This difference contributes to reproductive isolation between the species. Genetic analysis shows that this difference maps to only the third chromosome, with the other three chromosomes having no apparent effect. The D. simulans alleles on the left arm of chromosome 3 are largely recessive, allowing us to search for the relevant regions using D. melanogaster deficiencies. At least four nonoverlapping regions of this arm have large effects on the hydrocarbon profile, implying that several genes on this arm are responsible for the species difference. Because the right arm of chromosome 3 also affects the hydrocarbon profile, a minimum of five genes appear to be involved. The large effect of the third chromosome on hydrocarbons has also been reported in the hybridization between D. simulans and its closer relative D. sechellia, implying either an evolutionary convergence or the retention in D. sechellia of an ancestral sexual dimorphism.