Twelve cytochrome P450 cDNA fragments were cloned from Drosophila melanogaster by reverse transcriptase/PCR (RT/PCR) using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The corresponding genes belong to several subfamilies of the CYP4 and CYP9 P450 families. Only two of these genes, Cyp4dl and Cyp4d2, have previously been described. In situ hybridization of each of the cDNA fragments showed two clusters of genes; one near the tip of the X chromosome and the other on the left arm of chromosome 2. Interestingly the latter cluster comprises widely divergent genes belonging both to the CYP9 and CYP4 families and also to the CYP6 family (Cyp6a2). Putative allelic variants of several of the genes were found in different insecticide-resistant and -susceptible strains (Hikone R, Haag 79 and Oregon R). The identification of these genes and alleles will allow us to clarify the involvement of P450s in xenobiotic metabolism and will facilitate a genetic analysis of P450 functions in insects.