We targeted expression of human/fly chimeric Bcr-Abl proteins to the developing central nervous system (CNS) and eye imaginal disc of Drosophila melanogaster. Neural expression of human/fly chimeric P210 Bcr-Abl or P185 Bcr-Abl rescued abl mutant flies from pupal lethality, indicating that P210 and P185 Bcr-Abl can substitute functionally for Drosophila Abl during axonogenesis. However, increased levels of neurally expressed P210 or P185 Bcr-Abl but not Drosophila Abl produced CNS defects and lethality. Expression of P210 or P185 in the eye imaginal disc produced a dominant rough eye phenotype that was dependent on dosage of the transgene. Drosophila Enabled, previously identified as a suppressor of the abl mutant phenotype and substrate for Drosophila Abl kinase, had markedly increased phosphotyrosine levels in Bcr-Abl expressing Drosophila, indicating that it is a substrate for Bcr-Abl as well. Drosophila, therefore, is a suitable model system to identify Bcr-Abl interactions important for signal transduction and oncogenesis.