Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting responses and correlated responses to selection for abdominal and sternopleural bristle number have been mapped with high resolution to the X and third chromosomes. Advanced intercross recombinant isogenic chromosomes were constructed from high and low selection lines in an unselected inbred background, and QTL were detected using composite interval mapping and high density transposable element marker maps. We mapped a total of 26 bristle number QTL with large effects, which were in or immediately adjacent to intervals previously inferred to contain bristle number QTL on these chromosomes. The QTL contributing to response to selection for high bristle number were not the same as those contributing to response to selection for low bristle number, suggesting that distributions of allelic effects per locus may be asymmetrical. Correlated responses were more often attributable to loose linkage than pleiotropy or close linkage. Bristle number QTL mapping to the same locations have been inferred in studies with different parental strains. Of the 26 QTL, 20 mapped to locations consistent with candidate genes affecting peripheral nervous system development and/or bristle number. This facilitates determining the molecular basis of quantitative variation and allele frequencies by associating molecular variation at the candidate genes with phenotypic variation in bristle number in samples of alleles from nature.