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Raghavan, S., Williams, I., Aslam, H., Thomas, D., Szoor, B., Morgan, G., Gross, S., Turner, J., Fernandes, J., VijayRaghavan, K., Alphey, L. (2000). Protein phosphatase 1 is required for the maintenance of muscle attachments.  Curr. Biol. 10(5): 269--272.
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Type 1 serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PP1) are important regulators of many cellular and developmental processes, including glycogen metabolism, muscle contraction, and the cell cycle [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. Drosophila and humans both have multiple genes encoding PP1 isoforms [3] [6] [7]; each has one beta and several alpha isoform genes (alpha(1), alpha(2), alpha(3) in flies, alpha and gamma in humans; mammalian PP1beta is also known as PP1delta). The alpha/beta subtype differences are highly conserved between flies and mammals [6]. Though all these proteins are >85% identical to each other and have indistinguishable activities in vitro, we show here that the Drosophila beta isoform has a distinct biological role. We show that PP1beta9C corresponds to flapwing (flw), previously identified mutants of which are viable but flightless because of defects in indirect flight muscles (IFMs) [8]. We have isolated a new, semi-lethal flw allele that shows a range of defects, especially in muscles, which break away from their attachment sites and degenerate.

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