The invertebrate odorant-binding proteins consist of a large family of low-molecular-weight, highly divergent proteins expressed exclusively in the chemosensory sensilla of insects. Each member of this family studied to date is secreted into the sensillum lymph of a small subset of sensilla by non-neuronal support cells. These expression patterns suggests an odor-specific function for these proteins as opposed to a general role in sensillum biology. Consistent with this notion, mutants defective for LUSH, a Drosophila member of this family, have odor-specific defects in olfactory behavior. The Drosophila genome contains at least 32 members of this gene family, rivaling the number of odorant receptors in this species. The relationship between these two protein families and how they act to determine odor specificity of olfactory neurons will be the topic of future studies.