With the completion of the Drosophila genome sequence, an important next step is to extract its biological information by systematic functional analysis of genes. We have produced a high-resolution genetic map of cytological region 38 of Drosophila using 41 deficiency stocks that provide a total of 54 breakpoints within the region. Of a total of 45 independent P-element lines that mapped by in situ hybridization to the region, 14 targeted 7 complementation groups within the 38 region. Additional EMS, X-ray, and spontaneous mutations define a total of 17 complementation groups. Because these two pools partially overlap, the completed analysis revealed 21 distinct complementation groups defined by point mutations. Seven additional functions were defined by trans-heterozygous combinations of deficiencies, resulting in a total of 28 distinct functions. We further produced a developmental expression profile for the 760 kb from 38B to 38E. Of 135 transcription units predicted by GENSCAN, 22 have at least partial homology to mobile genetic elements such as transposons and retroviruses and 17 correspond to previously characterized genes. We analyzed the developmental expression pattern of the remaining genes using poly(A)(+) RNA from ovaries, early and late embryos, larvae, males, and females. We discuss the correlation between GENSCAN predictions and experimentally confirmed transcription units, the high number of male-specific transcripts, and the alignment of the genetic and physical maps in cytological region 38.