Hox genes encode evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that play fundamental roles in the organization of the animal body plan. Molecular studies emphasize that unidentified genes contribute to the control of Hox activity. In this study, we describe a genetic screen designed to identify functions required for the control of the wingless (wg) and empty spiracles (ems) target genes by the Hox Abdominal-A and Abdominal-B proteins. A collection of chromosomal deficiencies were screened for their ability to modify GFP fluorescence patterns driven by Hox response elements (HREs) from wg and ems. We found 15 deficiencies that modify the activity of the ems HRE and 18 that modify the activity of the wg HRE. Many deficiencies cause ectopic activity of the HREs, suggesting that spatial restriction of transcriptional activity is an important level in the control of Hox gene function. Further analysis identified eight loci involved in the homeotic regulation of wg or ems. A majority of these modifier genes correspond to previously characterized genes, although not for their roles in the regulation of Hox targets. Five of them encode products acting in or in connection with signal transduction pathways, which suggests an extensive use of signaling in the control of Hox gene function.