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Takasugi, N., Tomita, T., Hayashi, I., Tsuruoka, M., Niimura, M., Takahashi, Y., Thinakaran, G., Iwatsubo, T. (2003). The role of presenilin cofactors in the bold gamma-secretase complex.  Nature 422(6930): 438--441.
FlyBase ID
FBrf0157158
Publication Type
Research paper
Abstract

Mutations in presenilin genes account for the majority of the cases of the familial form of Alzheimer's disease (FAD). Presenilin is essential for gamma-secretase activity, a proteolytic activity involved in intramembrane cleavage of Notch and beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP). Cleavage of betaAPP by FAD mutant presenilin results in the overproduction of highly amyloidogenic amyloid beta42 peptides. gamma-Secretase activity requires the formation of a stable, high-molecular-mass protein complex that, in addition to the endoproteolysed fragmented form of presenilin, contains essential cofactors including nicastrin, APH-1 (refs 15-18) and PEN-2 (refs 16, 19). However, the role of each protein in complex formation and the generation of enzymatic activity is unclear. Here we show that Drosophila APH-1 (Aph-1) increases the stability of Drosophila presenilin (Psn) holoprotein in the complex. Depletion of PEN-2 by RNA interference prevents endoproteolysis of presenilin and promotes stabilization of the holoprotein in both Drosophila and mammalian cells, including primary neurons. Co-expression of Drosophila Pen-2 with Aph-1 and nicastrin increases the formation of Psn fragments as well as gamma-secretase activity. Thus, APH-1 stabilizes the presenilin holoprotein in the complex, whereas PEN-2 is required for endoproteolytic processing of presenilin and conferring gamma-secretase activity to the complex.

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Note

Neurobiology: ballads of a protein quartet.
Mattson, 2003, Nature 422(6930): 385--387 [FBrf0159236]

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Secondary IDs
    Language of Publication
    English
    Additional Languages of Abstract
    Parent Publication
    Publication Type
    Journal
    Abbreviation
    Nature
    Title
    Nature
    Publication Year
    1869-
    ISBN/ISSN
    0028-0836
    Data From Reference
    Genes (5)