Micro-RNAs are a class of small non-coding regulatory RNAs that impair translation by imperfect base pairing to mRNAs. For analysis of their cellular function we injected different miRNA-specific DNA antisense oligonucleotides in Drosophila embryos. In four cases we observed severe interference with normal development, one had a moderate impact and six oligonucleotides did not cause detectable phenotypes. We further used the miR-13a DNA antisense oligonucleotide as a PCR primer on a cDNA library template. In this experimental way we identified nine Drosophila genes, which are characterised by 3' untranslated region motifs that allow imperfect duplex formation with miR-13 or related miRNAs. These genes, which include Sos and Myd88, represent putative targets for miRNA regulation. Mutagenesis of the target motif of two genes followed by transfection in Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells and subsequent reporter gene analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the binding potential of miR-13 is inversely correlated with gene expression.