How is the size of an animal determined? Why is it that humans grow larger than mice? Certainly, one of the most astonishing features of animal development is that every animal of a given species, and its organs and appendages, grow to approximately the same size. Surprisingly little is known about the biology of tissue growth and size control. Recent advances in Drosophila research have implicated a microRNA as an important regulator of animal size. These studies reveal an unexpected layer of size regulation in higher animals.