The absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), encoded by the FMR1 gene, is responsible for pathologic manifestations in the Fragile X Syndrome, the most frequent cause of inherited mental retardation. FMRP is an RNA-binding protein associated with polysomes as part of a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complex. Although its function is poorly understood, various observations suggest a role in local protein translation at neuronal dendrites and in dendritic spine maturation. We present here the identification of CYFIP1/2 (Cytoplasmic FMRP Interacting Proteins) as FMRP interactors. CYFIP1/2 share 88% amino acid sequence identity and represent the two members in humans of a highly conserved protein family. Remarkably, whereas CYFIP2 also interacts with the FMRP-related proteins FXR1P/2P, CYFIP1 interacts exclusively with FMRP. FMRP--CYFIP interaction involves the domain of FMRP also mediating homo- and heteromerization, thus suggesting a competition between interaction among the FXR proteins and interaction with CYFIP. CYFIP1/2 are proteins of unknown function, but CYFIP1 has recently been shown to interact with the small GTPase Rac1, which is implicated in development and maintenance of neuronal structures. Consistent with FMRP and Rac1 localization in dendritic fine structures, CYFIP1/2 are present in synaptosomal extracts.