In yeast cells, the THO complex has been implicated in mitotic recombination, transcription elongation and mRNA nuclear export. The stable core of THO consists of Tho2p, Hpr1p, Mft1p and Thp2p. Whether a complex with similar functions assembles in metazoa has not yet been established. Here we report that Drosophila melanogaster THO consists of THO2, HPR1 and three proteins, THOC5-THOC7, which have no orthologs in budding yeast. Gene expression profiling in cells depleted of THO components revealed that <20% of the transcriptome was regulated by THO. Nonetheless, export of heat-shock mRNAs under heat stress was strictly dependent on THO function. Notably, 8% of upregulated genes encode proteins involved in DNA repair. Thus, although THO function seems to be conserved, the vast majority of mRNAs are transcribed and exported independently of THO in D. melanogaster.