We have surveyed 18 natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster for the presence of 23 retrotransposon-gene-association alleles (i.e., the presence of an LTR retrotransposon sequence in or within 1,000 bp of a gene) recently identified in the sequenced D. melanogaster genome. The identified associations were detected only in the D. melanogaster populations. The majority (61%) of the identified retrotransposon-gene associations were present only in the sequenced strain in which they were first identified. Thirty percent of the associations were detected in at least one of the natural populations, and 9% of the associations were detected in all of the D. melanogaster populations surveyed. Sequence analysis of an association allele present in all populations indicates that selection is a significant factor in the spread and/or maintenance of at least some of retroelement-gene associations in D. melanogaster.