Bcl-2 family proteins regulate cell death through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Here, we show that the Drosophila Bax-like Bcl-2 family protein Drob-1 maintains mitochondrial function to protect cells from neurodegeneration. A pan-neuronal knockdown of Drob-1 results in lower locomotor activity and a shorter lifespan in adult flies. Either the RNAi-mediated downregulation of Drob-1 or overexpression of Drob-1 antagonist Buffy strongly enhances the polyglutamine-induced accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and subsequent neurodegeneration. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Drob-1 suppresses the neurodegeneration and premature death of flies caused by expanded polyglutamine. Drob-1 knockdown decreases cellular ATP levels, and enhances respiratory inhibitor-induced mitochondrial defects such as loss of membrane potential (Deltapsim), morphological abnormalities, and reductions in activities of complex I+III and complex II+III, as well as cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that Drob-1 is essential for neuronal cell function, and that Drob-1 protects neurons from expanded polyglutamine-mediated neurodegeneration through the regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis.