The deleterious consequences of inbreeding, especially in the form of inbreeding depression, are well known. However, little is known about how inbreeding affects genome-wide gene expression. Here, we show that inbreeding changes transcription levels for a number of genes. Gene expression profiles of Drosophila melanogaster lines inbred to F approximately = 0.67 at different rates changed relative to those of noninbred lines, but the rate of inbreeding did not significantly affect gene expression patterns. Genes being differentially expressed with inbreeding are disproportionately involved in metabolism and stress responses, suggesting that inbreeding acts like an environmental stress factor.