The Drosophila master sex-switch protein Sex-lethal (SXL) regulates the splicing and/or translation of three known targets to mediate somatic sexual differentiation. Genetic studies suggest that additional target(s) of SXL exist, particularly in the female germline. Surprisingly, our detailed molecular characterization of a new potential target of SXL, enhancer of rudimentary (e(r)), reveals that SXL regulates e(r) by a novel mechanism--polyadenylation switching--specifically in the female germline. SXL binds to multiple SXL-binding sites, which include the GU-rich poly(A) enhancer, and competes for the binding of CstF64 in vitro. The SXL-binding sites are able to confer sex-specific poly(A) switching onto an otherwise nonresponsive polyadenylation signal in vivo. The sex-specific poly(A) switching of e(r) provides a means for translational regulation in germ cells. We present a model for the SXL-dependent poly(A) site choice in the female germline.