Transposable elements (TEs), represent a large fraction of the eukaryotic genome. In Drosophila melanogaster, about 20% of the genome corresponds to such middle repetitive DNA dispersed sequences. A fraction of TEs is composed of elements showing a retrovirus-like structure, the LTR-retrotransposons, the first TEs to be described in the Drosophila genome. Interestingly, in D. melanogaster embryonic immortal cell culture genomes the copy number of these LTR-retrotransposons was revealed to be higher than the copy number in the Drosophila genome, presumably as the result of transposition of some copies to new genomic locations [Potter, S.S., Brorein Jr., W.J., Dunsmuir, P., Rubin, G.M., 1979. Transposition of elements of the 412, copia and 297 dispersed repeated gene families in Drosophila. Cell 17, 415-427; Junakovic, N., Di Franco, C., Best-Belpomme, M., Echalier, G., 1988. On the transposition of copia-like nomadic elements in cultured Drosophila cells. Chromosoma 97, 212-218]. This suggests that so many transpositions modified the genome organisation and consequently the expression of targeted genes. To understand what has directed the transposition of TEs in Drosophila cell culture genomes, a search to identify the newly transposed copies was undertaken using 1731, a LTR-retrotransposon. A comparison between 1731 full-length elements found in the fly sequenced genome (y(1); cn(1)bw(1), sp(1) stock) and 1731 full-length elements amplified by PCR in the two cell line was done. The resulting data provide evidence that all 1731 neocopies were derived from a single copy slightly active in the Drosophila genome and subsequently strongly activated in cultured cells; and that this active copy is related to a newly evolved genomic variant (Kalmykova, A.I., et al., 2004. Selective expansion of the newly evolved genomic variants of retrotransposon 1731 in the Drosophila genomes. Mol. Biol. Evol. 21, 2281-2289). Moreover, neocopies are shown to be inserted in different sets of genes in the two cell lines suggesting they might be involved in the biological and physiological differences observed between Kc and S2 cell lines.