Drosophila melanogaster shows clinal variation along latitudinal transects on multiple continents for several phenotypes, allozyme variants, sequence variants, and chromosome inversions. Previous investigation suggests that many such clines are due to spatially varying selection rather than demographic history, but the genomic extent of such selection is unknown. To map differentiation throughout the genome, we hybridized DNA from temperate and subtropical populations to Affymetrix tiling arrays. The dense genomic sampling of variants and low level of linkage disequilibrium in D. melanogaster enabled identification of many small, differentiated regions. Many regions are differentiated in parallel in the United States and Australia, strongly supporting the idea that they are influenced by spatially varying selection. Genomic differentiation is distributed nonrandomly with respect to gene function, even in regions differentiated on only one continent, providing further evidence for the role of selection. These data provide candidate genes for phenotypes known to vary clinally and implicate interesting new processes in genotype-by-environment interactions, including chorion proteins, proteins regulating meiotic recombination and segregation, gustatory and olfactory receptors, and proteins affecting synaptic function and behavior. This portrait of differentiation provides a genomic perspective on adaptation and the maintenance of variation through spatially varying selection.