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Citation
Hittinger, C.T., Carroll, S.B. (2008). Evolution of an insect-specific GROUCHO-interaction motif in the ENGRAILED selector protein.  Evol. Dev. 10(5): 537--545.
FlyBase ID
FBrf0206020
Publication Type
Research paper
Abstract

Animal morphology evolves through alterations in the genetic regulatory networks that control development. Regulatory connections are commonly added, subtracted, or modified via mutations in cis-regulatory elements, but several cases are also known where transcription factors have gained or lost activity-modulating peptide motifs. In order to better assess the role of novel transcription factor peptide motifs in evolution, we searched for synapomorphic motifs in the homeotic selectors of Drosophila melanogaster and related insects. Here, we describe an evolutionarily novel GROUCHO (GRO)-interaction motif in the ENGRAILED (EN) selector protein. This "ehIFRPF" motif is not homologous to the previously characterized "engrailed homology 1" (eh1) GRO-interaction motif of EN. This second motif is an insect-specific "WRPW"-type motif that has been maintained by purifying selection in at least the dipteran/lepidopteran lineage. We demonstrate that this motif contributes to in vivo repression of the wingless (wg) target gene and to interaction with GRO in vitro. The acquisition and conservation of this auxiliary peptide motif shows how the number and activity of short peptide motifs can evolve in transcription factors while existing regulatory functions are maintained.

PubMed ID
PubMed Central ID
PMC2597661 (PMC) (EuropePMC)
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Secondary IDs
    Language of Publication
    English
    Additional Languages of Abstract
    Parent Publication
    Publication Type
    Journal
    Abbreviation
    Evol. Dev.
    Title
    Evolution and Development
    Publication Year
    1-
    ISBN/ISSN
    1520-541X
    Data From Reference
    Alleles (5)
    Genes (4)
    Physical Interactions (1)
    Natural transposons (1)
    Experimental Tools (1)
    Transgenic Constructs (5)