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Merkle, J.A., Rickmyre, J.L., Garg, A., Loggins, E.B., Jodoin, J.N., Lee, E., Wu, L.P., Lee, L.A. (2009). no poles encodes a predicted E3 ubiquitin ligase required for early embryonic development of Drosophila.  Development 136(3): 449--459.
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In a screen for cell-cycle regulators, we identified a Drosophila maternal effect-lethal mutant that we named ;no poles' (nopo). Embryos from nopo females undergo mitotic arrest with barrel-shaped, acentrosomal spindles during the rapid S-M cycles of syncytial embryogenesis. We identified CG5140, which encodes a candidate RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase, as the nopo gene. A conserved residue in the RING domain is altered in our EMS-mutagenized allele of nopo, suggesting that E3 ligase activity is crucial for NOPO function. We show that mutation of a DNA checkpoint kinase, CHK2, suppresses the spindle and developmental defects of nopo-derived embryos, revealing that activation of a DNA checkpoint operational in early embryos contributes significantly to the nopo phenotype. CHK2-mediated mitotic arrest has been previously shown to occur in response to mitotic entry with DNA damage or incompletely replicated DNA. Syncytial embryos lacking NOPO exhibit a shorter interphase during cycle 11, suggesting that they may enter mitosis prior to the completion of DNA replication. We show that Bendless (BEN), an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, interacts with NOPO in a yeast two-hybrid assay; furthermore, ben-derived embryos arrest with a nopo-like phenotype during syncytial divisions. These data support our model that an E2-E3 ubiquitination complex consisting of BEN-UEV1A (E2 heterodimer) and NOPO (E3 ligase) is required for the preservation of genomic integrity during early embryogenesis.

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PMC2687590 (PMC) (EuropePMC)
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    Aberrations (6)
    Alleles (11)
    Genes (15)
    Physical Interactions (3)
    Natural transposons (1)
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