The formation of an anterior-posterior (AP) gradient of microtubules in Drosophila oocytes is essential for specification of the AP axis. Proper microtubule organization in the oocyte requires the function of serine/threonine kinase Par-1. The N1S isoform of Par-1 is enriched at the posterior cortex of the oocyte from stage 7 of oogenesis. Here we report that posterior restriction of Par-1 (N1S) kinase activity is critical for microtubule AP gradient formation. Egg chambers with excessive and ectopic Par-1 (N1S) kinase activity in the germline cells display phenotypes similar to those of egg chambers treated with the microtubule-depolymerizing drug colcemid: depolymerization of microtubules in the oocyte and disruption of oocyte nucleus localization. A phosphorylation target of Par-1, the microtubule-associated protein Tau, is also involved in oocyte polarity formation, and overexpression of Tau alleviates the phenotypes caused by ectopic Par-1 (N1S) kinase activity, suggesting that Par-1 regulates oocyte polarity at least partly through Tau. Our findings reveal that maintaining proper levels of Par-1 at correct position in the oocyte is key to oocyte polarity formation and that the conserved role of Par-1 and Tau is crucial for the establishment of an AP gradient of microtubules and for AP axis specification.