Transglutaminases (TGs) catalyze the cross-linking of proteins and are involved in various biological processes in mammals. In invertebrates, except for the involvement in the hemolymph clotting, the functions of TG have not been revealed. Drosophila has a single TG gene (CG7356), from which two kinds of mRNAs (dTG-RA and dTG-RB) are formed. RT-PCR analyses indicated that both dTGs-RA and -RB are synthesized in all the developmental stages tested. To reveal the roles of dTG during the development, we examined a phenotype induced through the ectopic expression of dTG by using a GAL4-UAS targeted expression system. Over-expression of dTG-A in the eye imaginal disc of larva induced a rough eye phenotype in adult compound eyes. Co-expression of P35, an inhibitor of apoptosis, suppressed the rough eye phenotype, suggesting that the rough eye phenotype induced by the over-expression of dTG-A in the eye imaginal disc is due to the occurrence of apoptosis. The rough eye phenotype induced by the over-expression of dTG-A was suppressed by the crossing with mutant fly lines lacking Drosophila JNK gene basket (bsk) or Drosophila JNKK gene hemipterous. FLP-out experiments using an enhancer trap line showed that the over-expression of dTG-A in the eye imaginal disc increased the puckered enhancer activity, a reporter of Bsk activity. These results suggested that the rough eye phenotype induced by the over-expression of dTG-A is related to an enhancement of JNK signaling pathway.