Open Close
Reference
Citation
Chen, Y., Li, S., Tong, C., Zhao, Y., Wang, B., Liu, Y., Jia, J., Jiang, J. (2010). G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 promotes high-level Hedgehog signaling by regulating the active state of Smo through kinase-dependent and kinase-independent mechanisms in Drosophila.  Genes Dev. 24(18): 2054--2067.
FlyBase ID
FBrf0211810
Publication Type
Research paper
Abstract

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (Gprk2/GRK2) plays a conserved role in modulating Hedgehog (Hh) pathway activity, but its mechanism of action remains unknown. Here we provide evidence that Gprk2 promotes high-level Hh signaling by regulating Smoothened (Smo) conformation through both kinase-dependent and kinase-independent mechanisms. Gprk2 promotes Smo activation by phosphorylating Smo C-terminal tail (C-tail) at Ser741/Thr742, which is facilitated by PKA and CK1 phosphorylation at adjacent Ser residues. In addition, Gprk2 forms a dimer/oligomer and binds Smo C-tail in a kinase activity-independent manner to stabilize the active Smo conformation, and promotes dimerization/oligomerization of Smo C-tail. Gprk2 expression is induced by Hh signaling, and Gprk2/Smo interaction is facilitated by PKA/CK1-mediated phosphorylation of Smo C-tail. Thus, Gprk2 forms a positive feedback loop and acts downstream from PKA and CK1 to facilitate high-level Hh signaling by promoting the active state of Smo through direct phosphorylation and molecular scaffolding.

PubMed ID
PubMed Central ID
PMC2939367 (PMC) (EuropePMC)
Associated Information
Comments
Associated Files
Other Information
Secondary IDs
    Language of Publication
    English
    Additional Languages of Abstract
    Parent Publication
    Publication Type
    Journal
    Abbreviation
    Genes Dev.
    Title
    Genes & Development
    Publication Year
    1987-
    ISBN/ISSN
    0890-9369
    Data From Reference