Advances in mass spectrometry technology, high-throughput proteomics and genome annotations have resulted in significant increases in our molecular understanding of sperm composition. Using improved separation and detection methods and an updated genome annotation, a re-analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster sperm proteome (DmSP) has resulted in the identification of 956 sperm proteins. Comparative analysis with our previous proteomic dataset revealed 766 new proteins and an updated sperm proteome containing a total of 1108 proteins, termed the DmSP-II. This expanded dataset includes additional proteins with predicted sperm functions and confirms previous findings concerning the genomic organization of sperm loci. Bioinformatic and protein network analyses demonstrated high quality and reproducibility of proteome coverage across three replicate mass spectrometry runs. The use of whole-cell proteomics in conjunction with characterized phenotypes, functional annotations and pathway information has advanced our systems level understanding of sperm proteome functional networks.