|Citation||Powell, J.R., Dion, K., Papaceit, M., Aguadé, M., Vicario, S., Garrick, R.C. (2011). Nonrecombining genes in a recombination environment: the Drosophila "dot" chromosome. Mol. Biol. Evol. 28(1): 825--833. (Export to RIS)|
|Publication Type||Research paper|
|PubMed Abstract||Rate of recombination is a powerful variable affecting several aspects of molecular variation and evolution. A nonrecombining portion of the genome of most Drosophila species, the "dot" chromosome or F element, exhibits very low levels of variation and unusual codon usage. One lineage of Drosophila, the willistoni/saltans groups, has the F element fused to a normally recombining E element. Here, we present polymorphism data for genes on the F element in two Drosophila willistoni and one D. insularis populations, genes previously studied in D. melanogaster. The D. willistoni populations were known to be very low in inversion polymorphism, thus minimizing the recombination suppression effect of inversions. We first confirmed, by in situ hybridization, that D. insularis has the same E + F fusion as D. willistoni, implying this was a monophyletic event. A clear gradient in codon usage exists along the willistoni F element, from the centromere distally to the fusion with E; estimates of recombination rates parallel this gradient and also indicate D. insularis has greater recombination than D. willistoni. In contrast to D. melanogaster, genes on the F element exhibit moderate levels of nucleotide polymorphism not distinguishable from two genes elsewhere in the genome. Although some linkage disequilibrium (LD) was detected between polymorphic sites within genes (generally <500 bp apart), no long-range LD between F element loci exists in the two willistoni group species. In general, the distribution of allele frequencies of F element genes display the typical pattern of expectations of neutral variation at equilibrium. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that recombination allows the accumulation of nucleotide variation as well as allows selection to act on synonymous codon usage. It is estimated that the fusion occurred ∼20 Mya and while the F element in the willistoni lineage has evolved "normal" levels and patterns of nucleotide variation, equilibrium may not have been reached for codon usage.|
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|Language of Publication||English|
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|Abbreviation||Mol. Biol. Evol.|
|Title||Molecular Biology and Evolution|
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