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Damulewicz, M., Pyza, E. (2011). The Clock Input to the First Optic Neuropil of Drosophila melanogaster Expressing Neuronal Circadian Plasticity.  PLoS ONE 6(6): e21258.
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In the first optic neuropil (lamina) of the fly's visual system, two interneurons, L1 and L2 monopolar cells, and epithelial glial cells show circadian rhythms in morphological plasticity. These rhythms depend on clock gene period (per) and cryptochrome (cry) expression. In the present study, we found that rhythms in the lamina of Drosophila melanogaster may be regulated by circadian clock neurons in the brain since the lamina is invaded by one neurite extending from ventral lateral neurons; the so-called pacemaker neurons. These neurons and the projection to the lamina were visualized by green fluorescent protein (GFP). GFP reporter gene expression was driven by the cry promotor in cry-GAL4/UAS-GFP transgenic lines. We observed that the neuron projecting to the lamina forms arborizations of varicose fibers in the distal lamina. These varicose fibers do not form synaptic contacts with the lamina cells and are immunoreactive to the antisera raised against a specific region of Schistocerca gregaria ion transport peptide (ITP). ITP released in a paracrine way in the lamina cortex, may regulate the swelling and shrinking rhythms of the lamina monopolar cells and the glia by controlling the transport of ions and fluids across cell membranes at particular times of the day.

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PMC3124489 (PMC) (EuropePMC)
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