|Citation||Patel, M.V., Hallal, D.A., Jones, J.W., Bronner, D.N., Zein, R., Caravas, J., Husain, Z., Friedrich, M., Vanberkum, M.F. (2012). Dramatic expansion and developmental expression diversification of the methuselah gene family during recent Drosophila evolution. J. Exp. Zool. B Mol. Dev. Evol. 318(5): 368--387. (Export to RIS)|
|Publication Type||Research paper|
|PubMed Abstract||Functional studies of the methuselah/methuselah-like (mth/mthl) gene family have focused on the founding member mth, but little is known regarding the developmental functions of this receptor or any of its paralogs. We undertook a comprehensive analysis of developmental expression and sequence divergence in the mth/mthl gene family. Using in situ hybridization techniques, we detect expression of six genes (mthl1, 5, 9, 11, 13, and 14) in the embryo during gastrulation and development of the gut, heart, and lymph glands. Four receptors (mthl3, 4, 6, and 8) are expressed in the larval central nervous system, imaginal discs, or both, and two receptors (mthl10 and mth) are expressed in both embryos and larvae. Phylogenetic analysis of all mth/mthl genes in five Drosophila species, mosquito and flour beetle structured the mth/mthl family into several subclades. mthl1, 5, and 14 are present in most species, each forming a separate clade. A newly identified Drosophila mthl gene (CG31720; herein mthl15) formed another ancient clade. The remaining Drosophila receptors, including mth, are members of a large "superclade" that diversified relatively recently during dipteran evolution, in many cases within the melanogaster subgroup. Comparing the expression patterns of the mth/mthl "superclade" paralogs to the embryonic expression of the singleton ortholog in Tribolium suggests both subfunctionalization and acquisition of novel functionalities. Taken together, our findings shed novel light on mth as a young member of an adaptively evolving developmental gene family.|
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|Language of Publication||English|
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|Abbreviation||J. Exp. Zool. B Mol. Dev. Evol.|
|Title||Journal of experimental zoology. Part B. Molecular and developmental evolution|
|Data from Reference|