Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles housing a variety of essential biochemical pathways. Peroxisome dysfunction causes a spectrum of human diseases known as peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD). Although much is known regarding the mechanism of peroxisome biogenesis, it is still unclear how peroxisome dysfunction leads to the disease state. Several recent studies have shown that mutations in Drosophila peroxin genes cause phenotypes similar to those seen in humans with PBDs suggesting that Drosophila might be a useful system to model PBDs. We have analyzed the proteome of Drosophila to identify the proteins involved in peroxisomal biogenesis and homeostasis as well as metabolic enzymes that function within the organelle. The subcellular localization of five of these predicted peroxisomal proteins was confirmed. Similar to Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila appears to only utilize the peroxisome targeting signal type 1 system for matrix protein import. This work will further our understanding of peroxisomes in Drosophila and add to the usefulness of this emerging model system.