The creation of sexual dimorphism in the gonads is essential for producing the male and female gametes required for sexual reproduction. Sexual development of the gonads involves both somatic cells and germ cells, which often undergo sex determination by different mechanisms. While many sex-specific characteristics evolve rapidly and are very different between animal species, gonad function and the formation of sperm and eggs appear more similar and may be more conserved. Consistent with this, the doublesex/mab3 Related Transcription factors (DMRTs) are important for gonad sexual dimorphism in a wide range of animals, including flies, worms and mammals. Here we explore how sexual dimorphism is regulated in the Drosophila gonad, focusing on recent discoveries relating to testis development. We will discuss how sex determination in both the germline and the soma are utilized to create a testis, including the role of the key somatic sex determination factor doublesex.