Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by cytoplasmic aggregates and nuclear clearance of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). Studies in Drosophila, zebrafish and mouse demonstrate that the neuronal dysfunction of TDP-43 is causally related to disease formation. However, TDP-43 aggregates are also observed in glia and muscle cells, which are equally affected in ALS and FTLD; yet, it is unclear whether glia- or muscle-specific dysfunction of TDP-43 contributes to pathogenesis. Here, we show that similar to its human homologue, Drosophila TDP-43, Tar DNA-binding protein homologue (TBPH), is expressed in glia and muscle cells. Muscle-specific knockdown of TBPH causes age-related motor abnormalities, whereas muscle-specific gain of function leads to sarcoplasmic aggregates and nuclear TBPH depletion, which is accompanied by behavioural deficits and premature lethality. TBPH dysfunction in glia cells causes age-related motor deficits and premature lethality. In addition, both loss and gain of Drosophila TDP-43 alter mRNA expression levels of the glutamate transporters Excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) and EAAT2. Taken together, our results demonstrate that both loss and gain of TDP-43 function in muscle and glial cells can lead to cytological and behavioural phenotypes in Drosophila that also characterize ALS and FTLD and identify the glutamate transporters EAAT1/2 as potential direct targets of TDP-43 function. These findings suggest that together with neuronal pathology, glial- and muscle-specific TDP-43 dysfunction may directly contribute to the aetiology and progression of TDP-43-related ALS and FTLD.