Eukaryotic organisms use conserved checkpoint mechanisms that regulate Cdk1 by inhibitory phosphorylation to prevent mitosis from interfering with DNA replication or repair. In metazoans, this checkpoint mechanism is also used for coordinating mitosis with dynamic developmental processes. Inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1 is catalyzed by Wee1 kinases that phosphorylate tyrosine 15 (Y15) and dual-specificity Myt1 kinases found only in metazoans that phosphorylate Y15 and the adjacent threonine (T14) residue. Despite partially redundant roles in Cdk1 inhibitory phosphorylation, Wee1 and Myt1 serve specialized developmental functions that are not well understood. Here, we expressed wild-type and phospho-acceptor mutant Cdk1 proteins to investigate how biochemical differences in Cdk1 inhibitory phosphorylation influence Drosophila imaginal development. Phosphorylation of Cdk1 on Y15 appeared to be crucial for developmental and DNA damage-induced G2-phase checkpoint arrest, consistent with other evidence that Myt1 is the major Y15-directed Cdk1 inhibitory kinase at this stage of development. Expression of non-inhibitable Cdk1 also caused chromosome defects in larval neuroblasts that were not observed with Cdk1(Y15F) mutant proteins that were phosphorylated on T14, implicating Myt1 in a novel mechanism promoting genome stability. Collectively, these results suggest that dual inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1 by Myt1 serves at least two functions during development. Phosphorylation of Y15 is essential for the premitotic checkpoint mechanism, whereas T14 phosphorylation facilitates accumulation of dually inhibited Cdk1-Cyclin B complexes that can be rapidly activated once checkpoint-arrested G2-phase cells are ready for mitosis.