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Dawydow, A., Gueta, R., Ljaschenko, D., Ullrich, S., Hermann, M., Ehmann, N., Gao, S., Fiala, A., Langenhan, T., Nagel, G., Kittel, R.J. (2014). Channelrhodopsin-2-XXL, a powerful optogenetic tool for low-light applications.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(38): 13972--13977.
FlyBase ID
FBrf0226366
Publication Type
Research paper
Abstract

Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) has provided a breakthrough for the optogenetic control of neuronal activity. In adult Drosophila melanogaster, however, its applications are severely constrained. This limitation in a powerful model system has curtailed unfolding the full potential of ChR2 for behavioral neuroscience. Here, we describe the D156C mutant, termed ChR2-XXL (extra high expression and long open state), which displays increased expression, improved subcellular localization, elevated retinal affinity, an extended open-state lifetime, and photocurrent amplitudes greatly exceeding those of all heretofore published ChR variants. As a result, neuronal activity could be efficiently evoked with ambient light and even without retinal supplementation. We validated the benefits of the variant in intact flies by eliciting simple and complex behaviors. We demonstrate efficient and prolonged photostimulation of monosynaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction and reliable activation of a gustatory reflex pathway. Innate male courtship was triggered in male and female flies, and olfactory memories were written through light-induced associative training.

PubMed ID
PubMed Central ID
PMC4183338 (PMC) (EuropePMC)
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    Language of Publication
    English
    Additional Languages of Abstract
    Parent Publication
    Publication Type
    Journal
    Abbreviation
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
    Title
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    Publication Year
    1915-
    ISBN/ISSN
    0027-8424
    Data From Reference